Table 2.

Summary of assessment of certainty of evidence (GRADE) for different outcomes

OutcomeNo. of StudiesNo. of Participants95% CII2Quality of Evidence (GRADE)a
Incident CKD831,4100.60 to 0.8251%Moderateb
eGFR decline473770.49 to 1.0159%Lowc
Albuminuria481350.59 to 0.9937%Lowc
ESKDd1544,635NANANA
Serum creatinined00NANANA
Creatinine clearanced00NANANA
  • Low certainty: the confidence in the estimate is limited and the true association may be different from the estimate of association (19). GRADE, Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; NA, not applicable.

  • a Moderate certainty: we are moderately confident in the association estimate and the true estimate is likely to be close to the estimate of the association; however, there is the possibility it could be different (19).

  • b Evidence certainty upgraded to moderate because of the large association size.

  • c Evidence quality downgraded to low because of the nonrandomized nature of the studies.

  • d GRADE not possible because of the lack of data.