Table 1.

Characteristics of patients on incident PD by time period relative to implementation of the expanded ESKD prospective payment system

VariablePrereform Period: 2008–2009 (n=10,585)aInterim Period: 2010 (n=7832)aReform Period: 2011–2012 (n=18,742)a
% PD789
Female (%)444343
Age, yr (%)
 18–39141314
 40–64525252
 65–74202121
 75+131414
Race (%)
 White717170
 Black212222
 Asian556
 American Indian/Alaskan Native111
 Pacific Islander111
 Other/multiracial100
Hispanic (%)111112
Rural-urban commuting area (%)
 Urban858686
 Large rural777
 Small rural444
 Isolated rural333
 Unknown000
Primary cause of ESKD (%)
 Cystic kidney655
 Diabetes424344
 Glomerulonephritis161516
 Hypertension252727
 Missing cause000
 Other cause766
 Other urologic111
 Unknown cause333
Comorbidities (%)
 Diabetes, not cause8910
 Atherosclerotic disease151513
 Cardiac failure181817
 Cerebrovascular disease665
 Peripheral vascular disease998
 Other cardiac condition121212
Tobacco use (%)676
Needs help with ADLs (%)344
Current employment (%)302727
Medicaid (%)141415
Pre-ESKD nephrology care (%)
 Yes828282
 No131313
 Unknown555
BMI (%)
 Underweight222
 Normal282827
 Overweight313131
 Obese383940
 Missing/OOR111
Albumin (g/dl) (%)
 1 to <3.1161617
 3.1–3.4151514
 >3.4–5.5474645
 Missing/OOR222323
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2) (%)
 2 to <5668
 5–10413941
 >10–20495048
 Missing/OOR444
Facility average number of prior patients on PD per year (%)
 ≤5.5151923
 5.5 to ≤14191921
 14 to ≤24.2222118
 24.2 to ≤43.4222019
 >43.4222018
  • PD, peritoneal dialysis; ADL, activities of daily living; BMI, body mass index; OOR, out of range.

  • a Time period corresponds to when patients reached day 90 of ESKD.