Table 2.

Sample pharmacokinetic characteristics of toxins

ToxinMolecular Mass (Da)Volume of Distribution (L/kg)Protein BindingSpeed of Distribution from Plasma to TissueDialyzabilityOptimal Extracorporeal Modality for Removal
Amitriptyline2771995%FastNot dialyzableNone
Colchicine3995–840%FastNot dialyzableNone
Ethylene glycol620.6–0.8Little to noneFastDialyzableHD
Lithium70.6–0.9Approximately 10%Slower, may have rebound after HDDialyzableHD; CRRT (nonemergent cases)
Metformin1291–5NoneSlower, may have rebound after HDModerately dialyzableHD
Methotrexate4540.8–235%–50%Slower, may have rebound after HDModerately dialyzableHD
Rituximab144,000<0.2NoneNot applicableNot dialyzablePlasma exchange
Vancomycin1449<0.4–1<60% (varies)Slower, may have rebound after HDModerately dialyzableHD
  • HD, hemodialysis; CRRT, continuous renal replacement therapy.