Table 1.

Patient demographics, clinical features, laboratory characteristics, and pathology findings in 123 patients who underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging and allograft biopsy

Characteristics/FindingsAllograft Injury Group (n=103)Normal Control Group (n=20)
Donor age, yr, median (IQR)51 (43–56)50 (45–52)
Donor sex, male, n (%)40 (39)10 (50)
Recipient age, yr, mean (±SD)38±1035±9
Recipient sex, male, n (%)73 (71)16 (80)
Causes of ESKD
 Unknown, n (%)74 (72)15 (75)
 Glomerulonephritides, n (%)21 (20)4 (20)
 Other, n (%)8 (8)1 (5)
Transplant type
 Living donor kidney transplant, n (%)44 (43)9 (45)
 Deceased donor kidney transplant, n (%)59 (57)11 (55)
Immunosuppressive regimens
 Pre+MMF+FK506, n (%)74 (72)17 (85)
 Pre+MMF+CsA, n (%)13 (13)2 (10)
 Other, n (%)16 (15)1 (5)
Serum creatinine, mg/dl, median (IQR)1.9 (1.4–2.6)1.2 (1.0–1.3)
eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m2, median (IQR)47 (21–61)81 (71–85)
Proteinuria, g/24 h, median (IQR)0.5 (0.3–1.5)0.2 (0.1–0.3)
Hemoglobin level, g/dl, mean (±SD)11.5±2.213.9±2.5
Concomitant antihypertensives
 Renin-angiotensin blockers, n (%)34 (33)3 (15)
 Calcium channel blockers, n (%)58 (56)10 (50)
β-Blockers, n (%)31 (30)9 (45)
 Diuretics, n (%)4 (4)0 (0)
α-Receptor antagonists, n (%)9 (9)2 (10)
Main pathologic diagnoses in the allograft injury groupIgA nephropathy (n=22); chronic active AMR (n=17); IF/TA (n=10); acute AMR (n=6); BK virus nephropathy (n=6); CNI toxicity (n=6); acute mixed rejection (n=5); FSGS (n=5); donor-derived changes (n=5); idiopathic thrombotic microangiopathy (n=5); T cell–mediated rejection (n=5); glomerulosclerosis (n=3); transplant glomerulopathy suspicious for chronic AMR (n=3)a; MN (n=3); PGNMID (n=1); MPGN (n=1)
  • IQR, interquartile range; Pre, prednisone; MMF, mycophenolate mofetil; FK506, tacrolimus; CsA, cyclosporine A; AMR, antibody-mediated rejection; IF/TA, interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy; CNI, calcineurin inhibitor; MN, membranous nephropathy; PGNMID, proliferative GN with monoclonal IgG deposits; MPGN, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.

  • a In these three cases, both glomerulitis (g) and peritubular capillaritis (ptc) were present and g+ptc≥2, in addition to the histologic finding of glomerular capillary duplication. However, panel reactive antibody screening was negative, making the diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection likely but not definitive according to the criteria outlined in the 2015 Banff Schema.