Table 2.

Select characteristics of adult patients initiating in-center dialysis from 2005 to 2013 on day 1 of dialysis, by era and race/ethnicity

CharacteristicYear of Dialysis
2005–2007
(n=152015)2008–2010
(n=172334)2011–2013
(n=156667)
White
(n=83,578)Black
(n=44,214)Hispanic
(n=18,274)Asian
(n=5949)White
(n=92,911)Black
(n=49,320)Hispanic
(n=22,551)Asian
(n=7552)White
(n=85,162)Black
(n=42,555)Hispanic
(n=21,770)Asian
(n=7180)
Demographics
 Median age (Q1–Q3), yr70 (59–78)59 (49–70)61 (50–71)64 (53–75)69 (59–78)60 (50–70)60 (50–71)64 (54–75)69 (59–78)61 (51–70)61 (51–71)65 (54–75)
 Men, %595257556054585761555957
Medical factors
 Diabetes, %515365575256686055587063
 Atherosclerotic heart disease, %301519212815182025141516
 Heart failure, %383130273631282735302625
 Cerebrovascular disease, %111189101189101187
 Need help with ADLs, %12101081311111014121211
 Mean BMI (SD), kg/m228.2 (6.8)28.6 (7.1)28.0 (6.3)25.4 (5.8)28.8 (6.9)29.1 (7.2)28.5 (6.4)26.0 (6.0)29.2 (7.0)29.4 (7.2)28.8 (6.5)26.2 (6.0)
Individual-level socioeconomic factors, %
 No nephrology referral predialysis333940323239423229353829
 Employer health plan282419282623182522201622
 Medicaid163441371633413718344037
 Medicare644642426144394366524749
 Uninsured412137411137410137
 Unemployed122926241329282515303127
Regional-level socioeconomic factors
 Mean percentage of ZIP code below poverty line (SD), %14 (8)23 (11)21 (11)13 (8)14 (8)22 (11)21 (11)13 (8)14 (8)22 (11)22 (11)14 (9)
 Median percentage of ZIP code with <HS diploma (Q1–Q3), %14 (8)20 (9)27 (14)17 (11)14 (8)20 (9)27 (14)17 (1114 (8)19 (9)27 (14)17 (11)
 Large PD unit, %a616567695761657057656777
 For-profit dialysis unit, %b737481757578837679818679
 Urban ZIP code, %778789957787909576878994
 Census division, %
  Pacific105285511630581162956
  East South Central711117120171211
  West South Central9123159133141013325
  Mountain611256212562115
  New England622362225222
  South Atlantic173378173267173377
  West North Central832273137322
  East North Central191566191465191355
  Middle Atlantic191813161817121519171217
  • Q1, first quartile; Q3, third quartile; ADLs, activities of daily living; BMI, body mass index; HS, high school; PD, peritoneal dialysis.

  • a Reported for those on PD on day 1. Large units were defined as having at least 20 patients on PD. Only included as a covariate in models restricted to PD patients.

  • b This was unknown for white patients, n=5517 (2%); black patients, n=4505 (3%); Hispanic patients, n=1034 (2%); Asian patients, n=362 (2%).