Table 3.

Risk factors for tuberculosis in people with predialysis CKD

VariablesUnivariable Cox RegressionBackward Elimination
HR (95% CI)P ValueAdjusted HR (95% CI)P Value
Age (continuous), per 10-yr increment1.37 (1.31 to 1.44)<0.0011.37 (1.31 to 1.42)<0.001
Men (versus women)1.35 (1.19 to 1.53)<0.0011.33 (1.18 to 1.51)<0.001
Smoking history
 Ex-smoker (versus never smoker)0.96 (0.83 to 1.11)0.570.95 (0.82 to 1.10)0.52
 Current smoker (versus never smoker)1.18 (1.01 to 1.37)0.031.18 (1.01 to 1.37)0.04
Low income (versus not)1.15 (1.03 to 1.28)0.021.15 (1.03 to 1.29)0.01
Stages of CKD (versus stage 2)a
 Stage 11.48 (1.16 to 1.88)0.0011.49 (1.17 to 1.89)0.001
 Stage 2ReferenceReference
 Stage 31.05 (0.88 to 1.25)0.581.03 (0.87 to 1.22)0.75
 Stage 4/5 without dialysis1.67 (1.29 to 2.17)<0.0011.63 (1.26 to 2.11)<0.001
Body mass index (continuous), per 5-kg/m2 increment0.45 (0.42 to 0.49)<0.0010.45 (0.42 to 0.49)<0.001
Previous usage of immunosuppressants1.26 (1.13 to 1.41)<0.0011.26 (1.13 to 1.41)<0.001
Comorbidities
 Hypertension (versus none)0.95 (0.85 to 1.06)0.36
 Diabetes mellitus (versus none)1.46 (1.32 to 1.62)<0.0011.48 (1.34 to 1.63)<0.001
 Congestive heart failure (versus none)1.23 (1.02 to 1.48)0.03
 Dementia (versus none)0.91 (0.73 to 1.14)0.42
 Liver disease (versus none)0.95 (0.68 to 1.33)0.77
 Peripheral vascular disease (versus none)1.12 (0.99 to 1.27)0.06
 Cancer (versus none)0.97 (0.81 to 1.17)0.76
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (versus none)1.42 (1.19 to 1.68)<0.0011.44 (1.30 to 1.59)<0.001
 Clinical diagnosis for glomerular or tubulointerstitial disease (versus none)0.99 (0.80 to 1.22)0.89
  • HR, hazard ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.

  • a Stages of CKD were determined as stage 1 (eGFR≥90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 with consecutive albuminuria), stage 2 (eGFR≥60 and <90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 with consecutive albuminuria), stage 3 (eGFR≥30 and <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2), and stage 4/5 without dialysis (eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 but not on kidney replacement therapy).