Table 2.

Incidence and risk of tuberculosis in people with predialysis CKD compared with the matched control group

Study groupsN of TB/TotalIncidence Rate (/100,000 PY)UnivariableModel 1aModel 2b
HR (95% CI)P ValueAdjusted HR (95% CI)P ValueAdjusted HR (95% CI)P Value
Matched control1518/408,873121.9ReferenceReferenceReference
Predialysis CKDc1704/408.873137.51.13 (1.06 to 1.21)<0.0011.13 (1.06 to 1.21)<0.0011.21 (1.13 to 1.30)<0.001
 Stage 1117/35,088122.71.02 (0.84 to 1.23)0.881.63 (1.34 to 1.97)<0.0011.82 (1.49 to 2.21)<0.001
 Stage 2157/55,45698.70.81 (0.69 to 0.96)0.011.05 (0.89 to 1.24)0.561.19 (1.00 to 1.41)0.04
 Stage 31336/306,127141.31.16 (1.08 to 2.25)<0.0011.08 (1.00 to 1.16)0.051.16 (1.07 to 1.25)<0.001
 Stage 4/5 without dialysis94/12,202241.61.98 (1.61 to 2.44)<0.0011.97 (1.60 to 2.42)<0.0011.85 (1.50 to 2.28)<0.001
  • TB, tuberculosis; PY, person-years; HR, hazard ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.

  • a Model 1 was adjusted for age, sex, low-income states, and smoking histories.

  • b Model 2 was adjusted for age, sex, low-income status, smoking histories, places of residence (rural or urban), history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, immunosuppressants usage history, and baseline body mass index.

  • c Stages of CKD were determined as stage 1 (eGFR≥90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 with consecutive albuminuria), stage 2 (eGFR≥60 and <90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 with consecutive albuminuria), stage 3 (eGFR≥30 and <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2), and stage 4/5 without dialysis (eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 but not on kidney replacement therapy).