Table 1.

Description of study cohort (n=623)

Characteristicn (%)
Demographics
 Mean age (SD)68±16
 Male245 (39%)
 Arrived by ambulance389 (62%)
Past Medical History
 Stroke77 (12%)
 Dementia70 (11%)
 Parkinson disease4 (0.6%)
 Alcoholism120 (19%)
 Cancer114 (18%)
 Cirrhosis52 (8%)
 Hemodialysis3 (0.5%)
 Adrenal insufficiency20 (3%)
Active disease
 Low serum albumin/total protein40 (6%)
 Clinical diagnosis malnutrition131 (21%)
Drug exposure
 HCTZ215 (34%)
 Furosemide107 (17%)
 Anticonvulsant55 (9%)
 SSRI85 (14%)
 SNRI32 (5%)
 MDMA1 (0.2%)
History
 Vomiting227 (36%)
Physical examination
 Mean Systolic BP (SD)137±66
 Baseline LOC: normal230 (37%)
 Confused232 (37%)
 Decreased129 (21%)
 Comatose9 (1.4%)
 Not documented23 (4%)
 Baseline volume status: normal131 (21%)
 Hypovolemic455 (73%)
 Overloaded37 (6%)
Baseline investigations
 Mean (SD) corrected sodium (mmol/L)112±3
 Serum K+ <3mmol/L144 (23%)
 Urine osmolality
   <150 mosm/kg62 (10%)
  150–300 mosm/kg173 (28%)
  >300 mosm/kg261 (42%)
  Not measured127 (20%)
 Median eGFR (IQR)77 (50–114)
 eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m279 (13%)
 CNS bleed3 (0.5%)
 Significant chest tumor63 (10%)
 Significant chest infection114 (18%)
Outcomes
 Median length of stay (IQR)6 (3–13)
 Disposition: community454 (73%)
 Rehabilitation17 (3%)
 Assisted living101 (16%)
 Dead51 (8%)
  • HCTZ, hydrochlorothiazide; SSRI, sustained serotonin reuptake inhibitor; SNRI, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor; MDMA, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine; LOC, level of consciousness; K+, potassium; IQR, interquartile range; CNS, central nervous system.