Table 1.

Characteristics at time of registration of 8766 people included in our analysis from the ADVANCE trial

VariableeGFR ChangeUACR Change
Decrease ≥40%Minor ChangeIncrease ≥40%Decrease ≥40%Minor ChangeIncrease ≥40%
No. of participants2768186304251530023249
Demographic factors
 Age, yr65 (7)66 (6)65 (6)66 (6)65 (6)65 (6)
 Women, %166 (60)3381 (41)183 (60)1065 (42)1246 (42)1419 (44)
 Residence in Asia, %180 (65)3168 (38)174 (57)1058 (42)1179 (39)1285 (40)
Medical and lifestyle history
 Duration of diabetes mellitus, yr9.2 (7.0)7.8 (6.2)7.8 (6.4)8.0 (6.4)7.5 (6.0)7.9 (6.4)
 History of macrovascular disease at baseline, %73 (26)2529 (31)101 (33)779 (31)881 (29)1043 (32)
 Current smoking, %28 (10)1219 (15)41 (13)364 (14)436 (15)488 (15)
 Current alcohol drinking, %38 (14)2511 (31)47 (15)734 (29)939 (31)923 (28)
Risk factors
 Systolic BP, mm Hg147 (22)144 (21)145 (22)147 (21)143 (21)144 (21)
 Diastolic BP, mm Hg81 (12)81 (11)80 (11)82 (11)80 (11)80 (11)
 Heart rate, bpm76 (12)74 (12)76 (12)75 (12)74 (12)74 (12)
 HbA1c, %8.0 (1.9)7.5 (1.5)7.7 (1.8)7.5 (1.6)7.5 (1.5)7.5 (1.5)
 Total cholesterol, mg/dl203 (46)200 (46)220 (51)203 (47)200 (44)200 (46)
 Triglycerides, mg/dl147 (106–221)143 (106–204)151 (106–230)151 (106–213)142 (105–204)142 (106–204)
 Body mass index, kg/m227.2 (4.6)28.3 (5.2)27.7 (4.8)28.3 (5.2)28.2 (5.1)28.2 (5.2)
Randomized treatments
 Perindopril-indapamide159 (58)4066 (50)131 (43)1405 (56)1512 (50)1439 (44)
 Intensive blood glucose control150 (54)4158 (51)150 (49)1340 (53)1524 (51)1594 (49)
Blood glucose–lowering treatments
 Oral hypoglycemic agents, %a258 (93)7417 (91)279 (92)2285 (91)2703 (90)2966 (91)
 Insulin, %4 (1)110 (1)11 (4)44 (2)37 (1)44 (1)
BP-lowering treatments
β-blocker, %s55 (20)1984 (24)73 (24)569 (23)715 (24)828 (25)
 Calcium-channel blocker, %90 (33)2460 (30)116 (38)827 (33)840 (28)999 (31)
 Diuretics, %b65 (24)1861 (23)88 (29)540 (21)657 (22)817 (25)
 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, %b107 (39)3457 (42)142 (47)1008 (40)1263 (42)1435 (44)
 Angiotensin II receptor blockers, %16 (6)418 (5)7 (2)135 (5)144 (5)162 (5)
 Other antihypertensive agents, %66 (24)967 (12)55 (18)318 (13)358 (12)412 (13)
 Any BP-lowering agents, %b222 (80)6057 (74)243 (80)1900 (76)2171 (72)2451 (75)
Changes in risk factors
 First UACR, mg/g21 (10–72)14 (7–35)14 (8–47)33 (16–92)13 (7–27)9 (4–19)
 Second UACR, mg/g21 (11–66)14 (7–37)14 (7–45)9 (4–19)12 (7–27)28 (12–77)
 First eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m285 (21)76 (17)54 (11)76 (18)76 (17)75 (17)
 Second eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m244 (12)72 (17)85 (14)72 (18)72 (18)72 (18)
 First systolic BP, mm Hg147 (22)144 (21)145 (21)147 (21)143 (21)144 (21)
 Second systolic BP, mm Hg138 (19)138 (18)139 (18)137 (18)137 (18)139 (19)
  • For continuous variables, mean values and their corresponding SD are presented, except that median values (interquartile interval [IQI[) are presented for triglycerides and UACR. Linear trends of triglycerides and UACR across categories were tested after log-transformation. Categorical variables are presented as n (%). ADVANCE, Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation; UACR, urine albumin-to-creatinine-ratio; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c.

  • a Randomized treatment with gliclazide was not included.

  • b Randomized treatment with perindopril-indapamide was not included.