Table 3.

Associations of clinical characteristics with time spent in hypoglycemia among 81 CANDY study participants with type 2 diabetes and CKD

CharacteristicNMean (SD), min/dDifference (95% CI), min/dAdjusted Difference (95% CI), min/d
Age, yr
 <601215 (19)0 (Ref.)0 (Ref.)
 60–692829 (38)14 (−3 to 32)9 (−6 to 24)
 70–793433 (43)18 (1 to 36)14 (−2 to 31)
 ≥80719 (16)4 (−11 to 19)−3 (−20 to 13)
eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m2
 45–592825 (41)0 (Ref.)0 (Ref.)
 30–443039 (36)14 (−6 to 33)9 (−10 to 29)
 <302318 (30)−7 (−26 to 12)−11 (−26 to 5)
Hemoglobin A1c category
 <7.0%2541 (46)0 (Ref.)0 (Ref.)
 7.0%–7.9%2731 (38)−10 (−32 to 13)−11 (−31 to 9)
 ≥8.0%2813 (19)−27 (−47 to −9)−25 (−42 to −7)
Hemoglobin A1c, per 1% increment−8 (−13 to −3)−6 (−10 to −2)
Glucose management indicator
 <7.0%2844 (44)0 (Ref.)0 (Ref.)
 7.0%–7.9%3924 (32)−20 (−39 to −1)−15 (−34 to 4)
 ≥8.0%146 (9)−38 (−55 to −22)−29 (−45 to −12)
GMI, per 1% increment−16 (−23 to −9)−13 (−20 to −7)
Insulin dose, units/kg per d
 No insulin97 (12)0 (Ref.)0 (Ref.)
 0.01–0.53833 (44)26 (10 to 42)14 (−1 to 29)
 0.51–1.02327 (29)19 (5 to 33)9 (−5 to 24)
 >1.01129 (36)22 (0.4 to 44)12 (−13 to 36)
Insulin dosage, per 0.44 unit/kg per d increment3 (−7 to 13)2 (−9 to 13)
Duration of diabetes, yr
 <10820 (28)0 (Ref.)0 (Ref.)
 10–193019 (28)−1 (−21 to 20)−4 (−23 to 17)
 ≥204038 (43)18 (−4 to 40)21 (−1 to 43)
Body mass index
 <302127 (28)0 (Ref.)0 (Ref.)
 30–343331 (42)4 (−14 to 23)9 (−8 to 27)
 35–391817 (30)−10 (−27 to 8)−7 (−24 to 11)
 ≥40939 (48)12 (−20 to 44)9 (−14 to 31)
Medications
 Insulin
  None97 (12)0 (Ref.)0 (Ref.)
  Any7230 (38)31 (2 to 61)16 (−13 to 45)
 Insulin secretagogues
  No6328 (33)0 (Ref.)0 (Ref.)
  Yes1827 (49)11 (−21 to 44)4 (−28 to 35)
 Other glucose-lowering agents
  No5226 (34)0 (Ref.)0 (Ref.)
  Yes2931 (43)4 (−12 to 19)10 (−5 to 26)
  • Adjusted differences are adjusted for age, sex, and race. CANDY, Continuous Glucose Monitoring to Assess Glycemia in Chronic Kidney Disease; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; Ref., reference; GMI, glucose management indicator.