Table 3.

AKI risk assessment among hospitalized patients

Risk CategoryExamples
Comorbid conditionsCKD
Diabetes mellitus
Heart failure
Liver disease
History of AKI
Anemia
Neurologic for cognitive impairment or disability
IllnessesSepsis
Rhabdomyolysis
Hemorrhage
Hemolysis
ARDS
Severe diarrhea
Hematologic malignancy
Trauma
Symptoms and signsHypotension and hypovolemia
Hypertension and fluid overload
Oliguria (urine output <0.5 ml/kg per h)
Symptoms/history of urological obstruction or conditions that may lead to obstruction
Symptoms or signs of glomerulo-interstitial nephritis (e.g., edema, hematuria)
OthersUse of KENDs within a week before admission
  • KEND medications include (1) cleared by the kidney but not nephrotoxic (e.g., digoxin), (2) cleared by the kidney and nephrotoxic (e.g., vancomycin), and (3) not cleared by the kidney but are nephrotoxic (e.g., calcineurin inhibitors). KEND, kidney eliminated and nephrotoxic drugs; ARDS, adult respiratory distress syndrome.