Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of 3967 participants in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study in Japan

CharacteristicsPostdialysis K Range, mEq/L
Low, 2.1–2.9Medium-Low, 3.0–3.4Medium-High, 3.5–3.9High, 4.0–6.4Total, 2.1–6.4
Demographic characteristics
n (%)374 (9%)1752 (44%)1427 (36%)414 (10%)3967 (100%)
 Men191 (51%)1069 (61%)972 (68%)320 (77%)2552 (64%)
 Age, yr67±1266±1264±1262±1365±12
 Body mass index, kg/m220.4±3.721.2±3.421.7±3.422.3±3.921.4±3.5
Laboratory measurements
 Predialysis K level, mEq/L3.8±0.54.6±0.65.2±0.65.6±0.74.8±0.8
 Albumin level, g/dl3.5±0.53.7±0.43.7±0.43.8±0.43.7±0.4
 C-reactive protein level, mg/dl0.16 (0.07–0.53)0.10 (0.06–0.39)0.10 (0.05–0.35)0.10 (0.05–0.30)0.10 (0.05–0.40)
 Dialysis-related characteristics
 Dialysis vintage, yr3.9 (0.4–8.2)4.3 (0.7–10.6)3.7 (0.6–9.7)2.6 (0.5–6.5)3.9 (0.6–9.7)
 Single-pool Kt/V1.5±0.31.4±0.31.3±0.31.2±0.31.4±0.3
 Normalized protein catabolic ratio, g/kg per day0.9±0.20.9±0.20.9±0.20.9±0.20.9±0.2
 Dialysis blood flow, ml/min209±50210±47205±41200±35207±43
 Weekly dialysis duration, min720 (677–729)720 (700–730)720 (684–727)720 (684–723)720 (690–729)
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Coronary artery disease83 (22%)394 (22%)281 (20%)91 (22%)849 (21%)
 Chronic heart failure72 (19%)231 (13%)182 (13%)50 (12%)535 (13%)
 Other heart disease39 (10%)168 (10%)151 (11%)31 (7%)389 (10%)
 Cancer43 (11%)180 (10%)128 (9%)36 (9%)387 (10%)
 Psychiatric disorder39 (10%)79 (5%)78 (5%)14 (3%)210 (5%)
 Cerebrovascular disease51 (14%)210 (12%)137 (10%)31 (7%)429 (11%)
 Diabetes mellitus169 (45%)659 (38%)621 (44%)216 (52%)1665 (42%)
 Hypertension291 (78%)1364 (78%)1140 (80%)336 (81%)3131 (79%)
 Dyslipidemia80 (21%)371 (21%)281 (20%)100 (24%)832 (21%)
 Peripheral vascular disease29 (8%)146 (8%)132 (9%)34 (8%)341 (9%)
Medication
 Angiotensin II receptor blocker29 (31%)559 (32%)447 (31%)124 (30%)1245 (31%)
 ACE inhibitor14 (4%)71 (4%)61 (4%)25 (6%)171 (4%)
 Diuretics96 (26%)396 (23%)287 (20%)106 (26%)885 (22%)
  • The numbers and/or percentages are given for dichotomized variables. The means and SD are presented for continuous variables with a normal distribution. The medium and 25–75th percentiles are given for continuous variables without a normal distribution. Postdialysis K, postdialysis serum potassium; predialysis K, predialysis serum potassium; ACE inhibitor, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor.