Table 1.

Characteristics of participants in two studies using continuous glucose monitoring to assess hypoglycemia and glycemic variability

CharacteristicCANDY StudyINITIATION Study
CKD, n=81Control Participants, n=24Control Participants, n=73
Demographics
 Age (years)69 (10)64 (10)59 (10)
 Men52 (64)15 (62)43 (59)
 Race/ethnicity
  White60 (74)20 (83)NA
  Black12 (15)2 (8)NA
  Other9 (11)2 (8)NA
 Hispanic ethnicity8 (10)3 (12)NA
 Highest level of education
  High school22 (27)7 (29)NA
  Trade school17 (21)7 (29)NA
  College23 (28)7 (29)NA
  Graduate school19 (23)3 (12)NA
Health history
 General health
  Excellent/very good14 (17)8 (33)NA
  Good26 (32)8 (33)NA
  Fair or poor41 (51)8 (33)NA
 Current smoking2 (2)3 (12)NA
 History of myocardial infarction13 (16)1 (4)NA
 History of heart failure18 (22)1 (4)NA
 History of stroke12 (15)1 (4)2 (3)
 Duration of diabetes20 (11)16 (8)10 (6)
Medication use
 Insulina72 (89)21 (88)73 (100)
  Long- or intermediate-acting only22 (27)4 (17)73 (100)
  Mixed insulin4 (5)0 (0)1 (1)
  Basal bolus46 (57)17 (71)0 (0)
  No insulin9 (11)3 (12)0 (0)
 Insulin dose, units/kg per d0.56 (0.43)0.65 (0.49)
 Insulin secretagogues18 (22)5 (21)50 (68)
  Sulfonylureas17 (21)5 (21)50 (68)
  Meglitinides1 (1)0 (0)0 (0)
 Other glucose-lowering agentsb29 (36)18 (75)65 (89)
  DPP-4 inhibitors3 (4)0 (0)17 (23)
  GLP-1 agonists11 (14)5 (21)1 (1)
  Biguanides18 (22)14 (58)63 (86)
  SGLT-2 inhibitors1 (1)5 (21)0 (0)
  TZDs0 (0)0 (0)6 (8)
  α Glucosidase inhibitor0 (0)0 (0)2 (3)
 Antihypertensive medications77 (95)21 (88)50 (68)
  ACEi/ARBs60 (74)21 (88)50 (68)
  β Blockers38 (47)5 (21)10 (14)
 Lipid-lowering medications75 (93)20 (83)47 (64)
  Statins75 (93)20 (83)47 (64)
 Acetaminophen13 (16)2 (8)2 (3)
Physical characteristics
 Body mass index, kg/m233.8 (5.7)32.4 (6.2)33.5 (6.2)
 Systolic BP, mm Hg132 (21)136 (17)NA
 Diastolic BP, mm Hg72 (13)78 (12)NA
Laboratory values
 eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m238 (14)83 (11)77 (8)
 Urine ACR, mg/g132 (8)26 (7)NA
 Hemoglobin A1c, %7.8 (1.4)7.6 (1.1)7.4 (0.9)
  • Entries are mean (SD) for continuous variables or n (%) for categorical variables, except geometric mean (SD) for urine ACR. Missing data in CANDY: history of stroke (n=2), duration of diabetes (n=4), urine ACR (n=3), hemoglobin A1c (n=1). Missing data in INITIATION: eGFR (n=7), hemoglobin A1c (n=1). CANDY, Continuous Glucose Monitoring to Assess Glycemia in Chronic Kidney Disease; NA, not available; DPP-4, dipeptidyl peptidase-4; GLP-1, glucagon-like peptide-1; SGLT-2, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2; TZD, thiazolidinedione; ACEi, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin-2 receptor blocker; ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio.

  • a Insulin usage was categorized by type of insulin, frequency of dosing and duration of effect: long- or intermediate-acting only, mixed insulin (a combination of intermediate- and short-acting insulin), basal bolus (use of a long- or intermediate-acting plus a separate short-acting insulin), or no insulin.

  • b Many participants used multiple glucose-lowering medications; all were required by design to use insulin, a sulfonylurea, or both.