Table 2.

Glycemia metrics assessed using continuous glucose monitoring

MetricCANDY StudyINITIATION Study
CKD, n=81Controls, n=24P 
ValueaEnd of Study, n=73P Valueb
Observation time
 Total time, d8902761456
 Average time per participant, d11 (2.3)12 (2.5)6. (0.8)
Mean blood glucose, mg/dl170 (40.0)158 (30.4)154 (30.4)
Glucose management indicator, %7.4 (1.0)7.1 (0.7)7.0 (0.7)
Level 1 hypoglycemia, <70 mg/dl
 No. of events25580220
 No. (%) of participants with at least one event56 (69)16 (67)51 (70)
 Duration of episode, min100 (56)116 (86)0.51104 (76)0.76
 Nadir glucose, mg/dl58 (4)55 (7)0.1659 (6)0.13
 Rate, episodes per 30 d5.3 (0.0–11.7)5.9 (0.0–10.9)0.9710.1 (0.0–18.5)0.01
Level 2 hypoglycemia, <54 mg/dl
 No. of events682578
 No. (%) of participants with at least one event34 (42)11 (46)27 (37)
Time in range
 Time in hypoglycemia, min <70 mg/dl per d28 (37)29 (36)0.9349 (71)0.02
  10 pm–10 am23 (32)22 (29)39 (63)
  10 am–10 pm5 (11)7 (13)10 (21)
  Time <54 mg/dl6 (12)9 (15)13 (29)
 Time in range, min 70–180 mg/dl per d886 (325)998 (312)0.14985 (268)0.03
 Time above range, min >180 mg/dl per d526 (337)414 (316)0.14406 (275)0.01
Glycemic variability
 SD of glucose readings, mean (SD)52 (14)46 (15)0.1149 (14)0.22
 IQR of glucose readings, mean (SD)72 (23)63 (24)0.1569 (24)0.56
 CV% of glucose readings, mean (SD)31 (6)29 (7)0.3632 (8)0.27
  • Data are displayed as n (%), mean (SD), or median (IQR). CANDY, Continuous Glucose Monitoring to Assess Glycemia in Chronic Kidney Disease; IQR, interquartile range; CV, coefficient of variation.

  • a P value compares CANDY participants with CKD with CANDY controls.

  • b P value compares CANDY participants with CKD with INITATION study controls.