Table 1.

Patient encounter characteristics

VariableaNo MAKE30MAKE30
N1524161
Age, yr8 (3–13)10 (3–14)
Age categories
 6 mo to <1 yr89 (6)14 (9)
 1 to <6 yr530 (35)41 (25)
 6 to <13 yr479 (31)53 (33)
 13 to <18 yr426 (28)53 (33)
Sex, girls758 (50)71 (44)
Race
 Non-Hispanic white1042 (68)115 (71)
 Non-Hispanic black209 (14)16 (10)
 Hispanic121 (8)11 (7)
 Asian47 (3)4 (3)
 Other105 (7)15 (9)
Payer
 Private693 (45)76 (47)
 Government696 (46)65 (41)
 Other payer135 (9)20 (12)
Admission through EDb1284 (84)125 (78)
Pediatric ICU admissionb974 (64)126 (78)
Number of complex chronic conditionsb
 None272 (18)10 (6)
 One259 (17)30 (19)
 Two231 (15)22 (14)
 Three or more762 (50)99 (61)
Type of complex chronic condition
 Cardiovascular325 (21)45 (28)
 Respiratory255 (17)14 (9)
 Neurologic/neuromuscular483 (32)51 (32)
 Hematologic/immunodeficiencyb201 (13)34 (21)
 Malignancy307 (20)42 (26)
 Kidney/urologicb164 (11)57 (35)
 Gastrointestinalb660 (43)51 (32)
 Metabolicb231 (15)47 (30)
 Other congenital/genetic194 (13)19 (12)
 Neonatal50 (3)5 (3)
 Technology dependency737 (48)88 (55)
 Transplantationb214 (14)35 (22)
Creatinine, mg/dl, baselinec0.3 (0.3–0.5)0.4 (0.3–0.6)
eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m2, baselined107 (107–177)115 (107–190)
AKIb,e
 Stage 1145 (10)10 (6)
 Stage 2289 (19)31 (19)
 Stage 3120 (8)87 (54)
Therapies
 Noninvasive mechanical ventilation209 (14)26 (16)
 Invasive mechanical ventilation, ETTb698 (46)111 (69)
 Invasive mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy164 (11)10 (6)
 Lactated Ringer fluid30 (2)3 (2)
 Blood transfusionb49 (3)13 (8)
 Vasoactive medicationb574 (38)107 (67)
 Corticosteroidsb559 (37)88 (55)
 Diureticsb537 (35)95 (59)
 Extracorporeal membrane oxygenationb19 (1)12 (8)
NINJA drug exposure
 Aminoglycosides491 (32)64 (40)
 Two or more nonaminoglycoside NINJA drugs713 (47)71 (44)
 Fewer than two NINJA drugs and no aminoglycoside320 (21)26 (16)
  • MAKE30, major adverse kidney events within 30 days; ED, emergency department; ICU, intensive care unit; ETT, endotracheal tube; NINJA, nephrotoxic injury negated by just-in-time action (25).

  • a Data are presented as n (percentage) or median (interquartile range).

  • b Variable differed between patients with MAKE30 versus patients without MAKE30 at the P<0.05 level.

  • c Baseline creatinine was measured for 988 (59%) patients and imputed for 697 (41%) patients.

  • d Baseline eGFR was calculated using the height-independent equation: eGFR (milliliters per kilogram per 1.73 m2)=107.3/(measured or estimated baseline creatinine/Q), whereas Q is equal to the median serum creatinine concentration for children on the basis of age and sex (Supplemental Table 4) (30).

  • e Stage 2 and 3 AKI within the first 7 days of admission was determined using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes classification system (26).