Table 3.

Associations of plant-based diet scores with incident CKDa

Diet IndexQuintiles of Plant-Based Diet ScoresP for Trend
Overall plant-based diet indexQ1 (n=3386)Q2 (n=2463)Q3 (n=3680)Q4 (n=2365)Q5 (n=2792)
 IR per 100,000 PY4.0 (3.7 to 4.2)3.9 (3.7 to 4.2)3.9 (3.7 to 4.1)3.5 (3.3 to 3.8)3.6 (3.3 to 3.8)
 Model 1bRef.1.01 (0.92 to 1.12)0.98 (0.90 to 1.07)0.87 (0.80 to 0.96)0.90 (0.81 to 0.99)0.004
 Model 2cRef.1.03 (0.93 to 1.14)0.99 (0.91 to 1.08)0.91 (0.83 to 1.02)0.94 (0.84 to 1.03)0.06
 Model 3dRef.1.04 (0.94 to 1.15)0.97 (0.88 to 1.05)0.90 (0.82 to 1.00)0.95 (0.86 to 1.04)0.07
Healthy plant-based diet indexQ1 (n=3067)Q2 (n=3214)Q3 (n=2554)Q4 (n=3407)Q5 (n=2444)
 IR per 100,000 PY4.1 (3.8 to 4.3)3.9 (3.7 to 4.2)3.7 (3.4 to 3.9)3.6 (3.5 to 3.9)3.5 (3.3 to 3.8)
 Model 1bRef.0.95 (0.87 to 1.03)0.88 (0.82 to 0.97)0.84 (0.77 to 0.91)0.81 (0.73 to 0.88)0.001
 Model 2cRef.0.97 (0.88 to 1.06)0.92 (0.85 to 1.01)0.88 (0.80 to 0.96)0.86 (0.78 to 0.96)0.001
 Model 3dRef.0.97 (0.89 to 1.07)0.96 (0.87 to 1.05)0.91 (0.83 to 0.99)0.91 (0.82 to 0.99)0.02
Less healthy plant-based diet indexQ1 (n=2982)Q2 (n=3254)Q3 (n=2631)Q4 (n=2891)Q5 (n=2928)
 IR per 100,000 PY3.6 (3.4 to 3.8)3.8 (3.6 to 4.0)3.8 (3.6 to 4.1)3.8 (3.6 to 4.0)3.9 (3.6 to 4.2)
 Model 1bRef.1.05 (0.96 to 1.15)1.06 (0.97 to 1.17)1.09 (0.99 to 1.20)1.14 (1.03 to 1.25)0.005
 Model 2cRef.1.05 (0.96 to 1.15)1.04 (0.96 to 1.16)1.07 (0.97 to 1.17)1.11 (1.01 to 1.21)0.04
 Model 3dRef.1.10 (1.01 to 1.20)1.12 (1.02 to 1.24)1.13 (1.03 to 1.25)1.18 (1.07 to 1.30)0.001
Provegetarian diet indexQ1 (n=3607)Q2 (n=3227)Q3 (n=2306)Q4 (n=2768)Q5 (n=2778)
 IR per 100,000 PY3.9 (3.7 to 4.1)3.8 (3.6 to 4.1)3.8 (3.6 to 4.1)3.7 (3.5 to 4.0)3.6 (3.4 to 3.8)
 Model 1bRef.0.96 (0.89 to 1.05)0.94 (0.85 to 1.03)0.90 (0.83 to 0.99)0.85 (0.78 to 0.94)0.002
 Model 2cRef.0.97 (0.89 to 1.06)0.96 (0.87 to 1.05)0.93 (0.85 to 1.01)0.90 (0.82 to 0.99)0.03
 Model 3dRef.0.97 (0.89 to 1.05)0.94 (0.85 to 1.04)0.91 (0.83 to 0.99)0.91 (0.82 to 0.99)0.02
  • Q, quintile; IR, incidence rate; PY, person-years; Ref., reference.

  • a Cell contents are incidence rates or adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for incident CKD.

  • b Model 1 was adjusted for age, sex, race-center, and total energy intake.

  • c Model 2 was adjusted for covariates in model 1 plus education, smoking status, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and margarine consumption.

  • d Model 3 was adjusted for covariates in model 2 plus baseline total cholesterol, lipid-lowering medication use, kidney function (two linear spline terms with one knot at 90 ml/min per 1.73 m2), hypertension, diabetes, and body mass index.