Table 2.

Pharmacokinetics of commonly used diuretics

DiureticOral Bioavailability, %Elimination t1/2, h
NormalCKDCirrhotic AscitesHeart Failure
Furosemide50 (10–100)1.5–22.82.52.7
Bumetanide80–10011.62.31.3
Torsemide68–1003–44–586
Hydrochlorothiazide55–776–15Prolonged
Chlorthalidone61–7240–60Prolonged
Metolazone70–90a14–20Prolonged
Amiloride∼50b6–26100Not changed
Spironolactone>901.5cd
  • Data are presented as single reported values or range of reported values. Values for furosemide are given as the mean (range). When precise values were not provided, descriptive terms are provided.

  • a Absorption may be decreased in heart failure.

  • b Decreased by food.

  • c Active metabolites of spironolactone have t1/2 of >15 hours.

  • d Active metabolites accumulate in CKD. Adapted from Karin (82).