Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of study participants with type 2 diabetes and moderate to severe CKD (n=38)

DemographicsN (%) or Mean (SD)
 Age, yr68 (9)
 Men25 (66)
 Race/ethnicity
  White32 (84)
  Black4 (11)
  Other2 (5)
 Highest level of education
  High school11 (29)
  Trade school5 (13)
  College13 (34)
  Graduate school9 (24)
Health history
 General health
  Excellent/very good8 (21)
  Good10 (26)
  Fair or poor20 (53)
 Current smoking0 (0)
 History of cardiovasular disease15 (39)
 History of myocardial infarction4 (11)
 History of congestive heart failure7 (18)
 History of stroke5 (13)
 History of peripheral vascular disease4 (11)
 History of atrial fibrillation7 (18)
 History of cardiac arrest0 (0)
 Duration of DM, yr20.1 (10.7)
Physical characteristics
 BMI, kg/m234.0 (6.2)
 Systolic BP, mm Hg134 (17)
 Diastolic BP, mm Hg70 (12)
 eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m238 (13)
Serum electrolytes
 Potassium, mmol/L4.5 (0.5)
 Calcium, mg/dl9.0 (0.5)
 Urine ACR, mg/ga128.6 (33.1–600.7)
 HbA1c, %7.9 (1.5)
 Serum albumin, mg/dl3.6 (0.4)
 Transferrin saturation, %28 (11)
Medication use
 Antihypertensive medications35 (92)
 ACEi/ARBs29 (76)
β-blockers21 (55)
 Calcium channel blockers21 (55)
 DHP calcium channel blockers19 (50)
 Non-DHP calcium channel blockers2 (5)
 Diuretics20 (53)
 Statins35 (92)
 Lipid-lowering medications35 (92)
 Thyroid supplementation4 (11)
 Any insulin use34 (89)
 Insulin secretagogues7 (18)
 Other glucose-lowering medications15 (39)
  • Entries are mean (SD) or N (%), as appropriate. DM, diabetes mellitus; BMI, body mass index; ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; HbA1C, hemoglobin A1C; ACEi, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; DHP, dihydropyridine.

  • a Urine ACR is presented as median (interquartile range).