Table 3.

Associations of spot urinary potassium-to-creatinine ratio with CKD progression among 1821 participants in the Korean Cohort Study for Outcome in Patients with CKD

Spot Urinary Potassium-to-Creatinine Ratio, mmol/gNo. of Events (%)Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 4
HR (95% CI)P Value for TrendaHR (95% CI)P Value for TrendaHR (95% CI)P Value for TrendaHR (95% CI)P Value for Trenda
Q1: <33.99143 (31)2.35 (1.75 to 3.16)<0.0012.64 (1.93 to 3.62)<0.0011.47 (1.02 to 2.12)0.031.47 (1.01 to 2.12)0.03
Q2: 33.99–45.9486 (19)1.35 (0.98 to 1.87)1.55 (1.11 to 2.17)0.95 (0.66 to 1.38)0.96 (0.66 to 1.40)
Q3: 45.95–61.69100 (22)1.58 (1.16 to 2.17)1.86 (1.35 to 2.56)1.07 (0.76 to 1.50)1.06 (0.76 to 1.49)
Q4: ≥61.7063 (14)1.001.001.001.00
  • Model 1: unadjusted crude HR. Model 2: adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, body mass index, and comorbid disease (diabetes and cardiovascular disease). Model 3: model 2 plus mean arterial pressure, eGFR, random urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio, C-reactive protein level, intact parathyroid hormone level, serum albumin level, serum calcium level, random urinary Na/Cr, and LDL cholesterol level. Model 4: model 3 plus renin-angiotensin system blocker, statin, and diuretics usage. HR, hazard ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; Q, quartile.

  • a P values for trend across quartiles of spot urinary potassium-to-creatinine ratio. P values for trend were calculated by treating quartiles as a continuous variable in each model.