Table 5.

Secondary outcomes

Secondary outcomesButtonholeStepladder
Total training time, d, mean±SD19±529±14
Pain, mm,a median (IQR)7.9 (0–30.3)8.9 (2.7–19.1)
Complications/adverse events, N (%)
 Contact dermatitis3 (38)1 (29)
 Aneurysm3 (38)0
 Hematoma1 (13)5 (83)
Interventions
 Surgical, N (%)00
 Radiologic (angioplasty for stenosis) (N)4 (50)3 (50)
Missed needles median (IQR)25.0 (10.8–49.8)25±32 5.5 (1.8–60.3)
  • IQR, interquartile range.

  • a Measured at follow-up (2 months); a higher score indicates greater pain.