Table 5.

Associations of medications and types of institutions with early AKI in the full Assessment of Worldwide AKI Epidemiology in Neonates cohort

VariableNon-AKI (%)AKI (%)Partially Adjusteda OR (95% CI)P ValueFully Adjustedb OR (95% CI)P Value
Antimicrobial medicationsc
 No403 (24)254 (57)RefRef
 Yes1258 (74)195 (43)0.2 (0.2 to 0.3)<0.0010.3 (0.2 to 0.3)<0.001
Methylxanthinesc
 No1194 (72)389 (87)RefRef
 Yes467 (28)60 (13)0.3 (0.2 to 0.5)<0.0010.4 (0.3 to 0.6)<0.001
Diureticsc
 No1591 (96)434 (97)RefRef
 Yes70 (4)115 (3)0.6 (0.4 to 1.1)0.120.5 (0.3 to 1.0)0.04
Vasopressorsc
 No1521 (92)411 (92)RefRef
 Yes140 (8)38 (9)0.7 (0.5 to 1.1)0.110.6 (0.4 to 0.9)0.01
NSAIDsc
 No1584 (95)436 (97)RefRef
 Yes77 (5)13 (3)0.6 (0.2 to 1.5)0.250.8 (0.3 to 2.2)0.62
Mean serum creatinine measurements3±35±41.2 (1.1 to 1.3)<0.0011.2 (1.1 to 1.3)<0.001
Site type
 Children’s hospital422 (25)255 (57)3.8 (2.2 to 6.6)<0.0012.8 (1.6 to 5.0)0.001
 Perinatal307 (19)56 (13)
 Perinatal/surgical932 (56)138 (31)RefRef
Creatinine method
 Enzymatic1250 (77)324 (76)RefRef
 Jaffe368 (23)105 (25)1.0 (0.5 to 2.3)0.911.0 (0.6 to 1.7)>0.99
Sites outside of the USA217 (13)43 (10)0.6 (0.3 to 1.3)0.201.0 (0.5 to 1.8)0.89
  • Antimicrobial medications: acyclovir, amphotericin B, aminoglycosides, piperacillin-tazobactam, and vancomycin; methylxanthine medications: caffeine and theophylline; diuretic medications: bumetanide, chlorothiazide, furosemide, and spironolactone; vasopressor medications: dobutamine, epinephrine, milrinone, NE, and dopamine; and NSAID medications: indomethacin and ibuprofen. OR, odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; Ref, XXX; —, XXX; NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  • a Estimated from a generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic model accounting for clustering by study center and adjusted for gestational age, ethnicity, and Apgar-1 and 5.

  • b Estimated from a GEE logistic model accounting for clustering by study center and adjusted for gestational age, ethnicity, and Apgar-1 and 5 in addition to other variables in the table.

  • c All medications were given before the episode of AKI.