Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of participants in the Dietary Intake, Death and Hospitalization in Adults with ESKD Treated with Hemodialysis (DIET-HD) study

VariableNo. of Participants with DataOverall, n=8078Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Servings per wk
0–5.5, n=25205.6–10, n=2958>10, n=2600
Sociodemographic
 Age, yr807863 (15)62 (15)63 (15)64 (15)
 Men80784678 (58)1428 (57)1753 (59)1497 (58)
 Life partner60694108 (68)1143 (67)1541 (68)1424 (68)
 Secondary education60662689 (44)742 (42)1033 (46)914 (44)
 Daily physical activity6175930 (15)286 (16)355 (15)289 (14)
 Waitlisted for transplant80621489 (18)511 (20)526 (18)452 (17)
Clinical characteristics
 Current or former smoker62562059 (33)585 (33)789 (34)685 (32)
 Body mass index, kg/m27870
  Underweight, <18.5365 (5)144 (6)122 (4)99 (4)
  Normal range, 18.5–24.93294 (42)1034 (42)1208 (42)1052 (42)
  Preobese, 25.0–29.92646 (34)822 (34)954 (33)870 (34)
  Obese, ≥30.01535 (20)450 (18)584 (20)501 (20)
 Hypertension72926196 (85)1763 (84)2311 (85)2122 (86)
 Diabetes72552332 (32)610 (29)825 (30)887 (36)
 Myocardial infarction7211831 (11)249 (12)302 (11)280 (11)
 Stroke7205633 (9)172 (8)247 (9)214 (9)
 Charlson Comorbidity Index score80786 (4–8)6 (4–7)6 (4–8)6 (5–8)
Laboratory variables
 Albumin, g/dl61394.0 (0.4)4.0 (0.4)4.0 (0.4)4.0 (0.4)
 Phosphorus, mg/dl78374.7 (1.4)4.7 (1.4)4.7 (1.4)4.6 (1.4)
 Calcium, mg/dl78388.9 (0.7)8.9 (0.8)8.9 (0.7)9.0 (0.7)
 Hemoglobin, g/dl783711.1 (1.3)11.1 (1.3)11.1 (1.3)11.1 (1.3)
 Potassium, mEq/L23535.0 (0.7)5.1 (0.7)5.0 (0.7)5.0 (0.7)
Dialysis characteristics
 Arteriovenous fistula80196452 (80)1998 (80)2363 (80)2091 (81)
 Time on dialysis, yr80783.6 (1.7–6.8)3.8 (1.8–7.0)3.7 (1.7–7.0)3.4 (1.6–6.3)
 Kt/V urea77861.7 (0.3)1.7 (0.4)1.7 (0.3)1.8 (0.4)
Dietary intake, servings per wk
 Fruit79675.5 (1.0–7.0)1.0 (0.0–1.0)5.5 (3.0–7.0)14.0 (7.0–14.0)
 Vegetables79173.0 (1.0–5.5)1.0 (0.0–1.0)3.0 (3.0–3.0)7.0 (5.5–7.0)
 Legumes and nuts80781.0 (0.5–3.0)0.5 (0.0–1.0)1.0 (0.5–3.0)1.0 (0.5–3.5)
 Cereals807514.5 (8.0–18.5)11.0 (4.0–16.0)14.5 (8.0–18.0)16.5 (11.0–20.5)
 Dairy80776.0 (2.0–10.0)3.0 (1.0–7.5)6.5 (3.0–10.0)7.5 (3.0–12.5)
 Fish and white meat80743.0 (1.0–6.0)1.5 (0.5–3.5)3.0 (1.5–6.0)4.0 (2.0–6.5)
 Red meat and meat products80323.0 (0.5–3.0)1.0 (0.0–3.0)3.0 (1.0–3.0)3.0 (1.0–5.5)
 Sweets and sweetened drinks807814.0 (6.5–22.5)10.5 (4.5–19.0)14.5 (7.0–23.0)15.0 (7.5–25.5)
 Total energy intake, kcal80782089 (1033)1740 (936)2064 (949)2457 (1090)
  • Continuous data are expressed as mean (SD), median (25th, 75th quartile), or number (percentage). Body max index categories are defined according to the World Health Organization.