Table 3.

Association of maternal conditions and fetal exposures with early AKI in the full AWAKEN cohort

VariableNon-AKI (%)AKI (%)Partially Adjusteda OR (95% CI)P ValueFully Adjustedb OR (95% CI)P Value
Number of gestations
 Single1337 (81)404 (90)RefRef
 Multiple324 (20)45 (10)0.5 (0.3 to 0.7)<0.0010.5 (0.4 to 0.8)0.004
Steroids for fetal maturation628 (38)117 (26)0.6 (0.4 to 0.9)<0.010.7 (0.4 to 1.1)0.10
Hypertensive disease during pregnancy375 (23)74 (17)0.7 (0.5 to 1.0)0.050.8 (0.6 to 1.1)0.14
Amniotic fluid
 Oligohydramnios78 (5)21 (5)1.0 (0.6 to 1.8)0.891.1 (0.6 to 1.8)0.84
 Normal1526 (92)407 (91)RefRef
 Polyhydramnios57 (3)21 (5)0.8 (0.5 to 1.2)0.280.8 (0.5 to 1.2)0.25
Mode of delivery
 Vaginal delivery650 (41)215 (51)RefRef
 Cesarean section, scheduled231 (15)45 (11)0.6 (0.5 to 0.8)<0.0010.7 (0.5 to 0.9)0.003
 Cesarean section, unscheduled699 (44)159 (38)0.7 (0.5 to 0.9)0.020.8 (0.6 to 1.0)0.09
Meconium exposure173 (10)62 (14)1.1 (0.8 to 1.7)0.501.1 (0.7 to 1.6)0.66
  • AWAKEN, Assessment of Worldwide AKI Epidemiology in Neonates; OR, odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; Ref, reference; —, not applicable.

  • a Estimated from a generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic model accounting for clustering by study center and adjusted for gestational age, ethnicity, and Apgar-1 and -5.

  • b Estimated from a GEE logistic model accounting for clustering by study center and adjusted for gestational age, ethnicity, and Apgar-1 and -5 in addition to other variables in the table.