Table 2.

Demographic, behavioral, and occupational characteristics of persons with biopsy-proven tubulointerstitial kidney disease

Selected CharacteristicTubulointerstitial Kidney Disease, n=43Other Kidney Disease, n=44Age-Adjusted Risk Ratioa (95% CI)
Demographics
 Education ≥10 yr17 (40)31 (71)0.7 (0.4 to 1.1)
 Endemic providenceb
  Birth43 (100)33 (75)1.4 (1.1 to 1.7)
  Current residence31 (72)31 (73)0.8 (0.6 to 1.1)
  ≥80% of lifespan39 (91)29 (66)
 Family history
  Any kidney disease16 (37)7 (16)2.6 (0.4 to 4.7)
  Death or dialysis requirement5 (31)5 (71)
Occupation
 Current occupation
  Professional3 (7)6 (14)
  Service2 (5)3 (7)
  Factory worker or day laborer1 (2)8 (18)
  Farmer28 (65)8 (18)
  Never worked2 (5)6 (14)
  Not currently working7 (16)12 (270)
 Ever farmer36 (84)17 (39)2.0 (1.2 to 2.9)
  Primary crop, rice29 (81)12 (71)1.2 (0.8 to 1.6)
  Primary crop, fruits and vegetables6 (17)2 (12)
  Primary job, everything on farm33 (92)12 (71)1.3 (0.9 to 1.7)
  Primary job, manual harvesting3 (8)4 (24)
Water
 Current water source
  Public tap11 (26)16 (36)0.5 (0.2 to 0.9)
  Wells21 (49)9 (21)
  Spring or surface0 (0.0)9 (21)
  Reverse osmosis, tanker, or bottle11 (26)10 (23)1.1 (0.2 to 2.0)
 Ever used well water39 (91)25 (57)1.5 (1.1 to 2.0)
Lifestyle
 Tobacco use, ever35 (81)19 (43)1.7 (1.0 to 2.3)
  Chewable tobacco use25 (71)10 (53)1.3 (0.7 to 2.0)
 Alcohol use, ever27 (63)20 (46)1.3 (0.8 to 1.9)
  Local alcohol use23 (85)13 (65)1.3 (0.8 to 1.8)
 Ever used traditional medications2 (5)3 (7)
Clinical symptoms or history
 Acute symptoms of fever, back pain, or dysuria over the past 6 mo35 (81)29 (66)1.2 (0.9 to 1.5)
 Dysuria, ever18 (42)13 (30)1.5 (0.5 to 2.6)
 Kidney stones3 (7)3 (7)
 Snake bites7 (16)8 (18)
  • Numbers are N (%). 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.

  • a Risk ratios are performed for variables with sufficient sample (denominator and/or numerator with at least ten observations).

  • b Endemic province defined as Central Province, Northern Province, Uva Province, or Eastern Province.