Table 4.

Associations of neonatal conditions and exposures with early AKI in the full AWAKEN cohort

VariableNon-AKI (%)AKI (%)Partially Adjusteda OR (95% CI)P ValueFully Adjustedb OR (95% CI)P Value
Delivery site
 Inborn1085 (65)172 (38)RefRef
 Outborn576 (35)277 (62)2.8 (1.7 to 4.5)<0.0012.6 (1.6 to 4.0)<0.001
Size
 Small for gestational age359 (22)84 (19)0.9 (0.6 to 1.2)0.451.0 (0.7 to 1.3)0.76
 Normal for gestational age1219 (74)330 (74)RefRef
 Large for gestational age79 (5)33 (7)1.4 (0.9 to 2.1)0.111.5 (1.0 to 2.3)0.06
Intubation391 (24)145 (32)1.2 (0.7 to 2.0)0.441.0 (0.6 to 1.6)0.95
Chest compressions48 (3)36 (8)1.4 (0.8 to 2.3)1.0 (0.6 to 1.6)0.94
Epinephrine16 (1)22 (5)2.5 (1.3 to 4.9)<0.012.4 (1.1 to 5.1)0.03
Saline bolus46 (3)34 (8)1.7 (0.9 to 3.0)0.091.1 (0.6 to 2.1)0.67
Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy/seizures104 (6)63 (14)1.4 (0.9 to 2.2)0.151.2 (0.7 to 1.9)0.50
Hypoglycemia197 (12)40 (9)0.8 (0.5 to 1.1)0.190.8 (0.5 to 1.1)0.14
Hyperbilirubinemia40 (2)23 (5)2.3 (1.3 to 4.1)0.0032.4 (1.4 to 3.9)<0.001
Inborn errors of metabolism10 (0.6)9 (2)3.9 (1.5 to 9.8)0.0043.3 (1.4 to 7.8)<0.01
Congenital heart disease64 (4)25 (6)1.5 (0.9 to 2.4)0.111.6 (1.0 to 2.5)0.06
Necrotizing enterocolitis7 (0.4)6 (1)2.9 (1.0 to 8.3)0.062.1 (0.8 to 5.7)0.14
Surgical need55 (3)34 (8)2.5 (1.4 to 4.3)0.0012.2 (1.3 to 3.8)<0.01
Kidney abnormalities
 None1608 (97)433 (97)
 Mild-to-moderate kidney anomalies50 (3)15 (3)0.9 (0.1 to 10.8)0.901.4 (0.2 to 9.8)0.76
  • AWAKEN, Assessment of Worldwide AKI Epidemiology in Neonates; OR, odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; Ref, XXX; —, XXX.

  • a Estimated from a generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic model accounting for clustering by study center and adjusted for gestational age, ethnicity, and Apgar-1 and -5.

  • b Estimated from a GEE logistic model accounting for clustering by study center and adjusted for gestational age, ethnicity, and Apgar-1 and -5 in addition to other variables in the table.