Table 1.

Demographics of the overall cohort of AWAKEN with and without early AKI and stratified into gestational age cohorts (22–28, 29–35, ≥36 wk)

CharacteristicOverall Cohort (n=2110)22–28 wk (n=265)29–35 wk (n=936)≥36 wk (n=909)
AKI (n=449)No AKI (n=1661)AKI (n=75)No AKI (n=190)AKI (n=127)No AKI (n=809)AKI (n=247)No AKI (n=662)
Gestational age, wk34.6±5.234.0±4.225.0±1.526.0±1.632.7±2.032.5±1.838.4±1.538.1±1.5
Birth weight, g2479±10852249±962797±198900±2582047±6931871±5623213±6183101±703
Sex (male)269 (60)932 (56)44 (59)105 (55)71 (56)449 (56)154 (62)378 (57)
Race (White)265 (59)916 (55)38 (51)87 (46)72 (57)457 (57)155 (63)372 (56)
Ethnicity (Hispanic)43 (10)243 (15)13 (17)14 (7)9 (7)129 (16)21 (9)100 (15)
Apgar-16 (3, 8)7 (4, 8)4 (1, 6)4 (2, 6)7 (4, 8)7 (5, 8)8 (4, 8)8 (5, 9)
Apgar-58 (6, 9)8 (7, 9)6 (4, 8)7 (6, 8)8 (7, 9)8 (8, 9)9 (6, 9)9 (7, 9)
Antimicrobialsa195 (43)1258 (76)44 (59)179 (94)58 (46)611 (76)93 (38)468 (71)
Methylxanthinesa60 (13)467 (28)36 (48)173 (91)20 (16)270 (33)4 (2)24 (4)
Diureticsa15 (3)70 (4)2 (3)16 (8)4 (3)10 (1)9 (4)44 (7)
Vasopressorsa38 (9)140 (8)17 (23)40 (21)6 (5)35 (4)15 (6)65 (10)
NSAIDsa13 (3)77 (5)13 (17)68 (36)0 (0)8 (1)0 (0)1 (0)
AKI by creatinine224 (50)070 (93)075 (59)079 (32)0
AKI by urine output282 (62)010 (73)068 (53)0204 (83)0
Mortality37 (8)40 (2)17 (23)20 (11)10 (8)8 (1)10 (4)12 (2)
Length of stay, d33±4230±3180±4781±4033±48.029±2219±2117±20
  • Data are shown as mean±SD or n (%) and Apgar are median and IQR. Antimicrobial medications: acyclovir, amphotericin B, aminoglycosides, piperacillin-tazobactam, and vancomycin; methylxanthine medications: caffeine and theophylline; diuretic medications: bumetanide, chlorothiazide, furosemide, and spironolactone; vasopressor medications: dobutamine, epinephrine, milrinone, norepinephrine, and dopamine; and NSAID medications: indomethacin and ibuprofen. NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. AWAKEN, Assessment of Worldwide AKI Epidemiology in Neonates.

  • a All medications were given before the episode of AKI.