Table 1.

Demographics, clinical characteristics, office and 24-hour ambulatory BP parameters, and drug treatment in the study cohort composed of 402 patients with CKD from two Italian clinics

Age, yr, mean ± SD63±14
Men, N (%)233 (58)
BMI, kg/m2, mean ± SD27.1±4.7
Smoking, N (%)97 (24)
Diabetes, N (%)141 (35)
History of cardiovascular disease, %29
eGFR, %
 eGFR=120–60 ml/min per 1.73 m220
 eGFR=59–30 ml/min per 1.73 m250
 eGFR=29–15 ml/min per 1.73 m223
 eGFR<15 ml/min per 1.73 m26
eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m2, mean ± SD44±20
Proteinuria, g/d, median (interquartile range)0.24 (0.08–0.92)
Hemoglobin, g/dl, mean ± SD12.9±1.8
Total cholesterol, mg/dl, mean ± SD189±39
Causes of kidney disease, %
 Hypertensive nephropathy44
 Diabetic kidney disease20
 Office systolic/diastolic BP, mm Hg, mean ± SD145±19/81±12
 Office BP <140/90 mm Hg (%)133 (33)
 24-h systolic/diastolic BP, mm Hg, mean ± SD126±16/72±10
 24-h BP <130/80 mm Hg (%)209 (52)
 Daytime systolic/diastolic BP, mm Hg, mean ± SD129±17/75±11
 Daytime BP <135/85 mm Hg (%)233 (58)
 Nighttime BP systolic/diastolic BP, mm Hg, mean ± SD120±19/66±11
 Nighttime BP <120/70 mm Hg (%)169 (42)
 Long-term office systolic BP variability,a mm Hg12.7±5.1
 Short-term 24-h systolic BP variability, mm Hg12.6±3.3
 Short-term daytime systolic BP variability, mm Hg13.1±3.9
 Short-term nighttime systolic BP variability, mm Hg11.5±3.8
 No. of drugs, median (interquartile range)3 (2–4)
 RAS inhibitors (%)326 (81)
 Calcium channel blockers (%)185 (46)
β-Blockers (%)145 (36)
 Furosemide (%)129 (32)
  • eGFR was calculated by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine equation. BMI, body mass index; ADPKD, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; RAS, renin-angiotensin system.

  • a Calculated on 366 patients (i.e., patients with four or more longitudinal visits).