Table 2.

Associations of long- and short-term BP variability and related BP metrics with a composite outcome of death and cardiovascular events

VariablesUnadjusted Analysis HR (95% CI), P ValueModel 1 HR (95% CI), P ValueModel 2 HR (95% CI), P Value
Average systolic office BP (HR per 5-mm Hg higher systolic BP)1.16 (1.09 to 1.24), P<0.0011.11 (1.02 to 1.20), P=0.011.08 (0.99 to 1.17), P=0.07
Average 24-h systolic BP (HR per 5-mm Hg higher systolic BP)1.14 (1.08 to 1.20), P<0.0011.08 (1.03 to 1.14), P=0.0041.09 (1.03 to 1.15), P=0.004
Average daytime systolic BP (HR per 5-mm Hg higher systolic BP)1.13 (1.07 to 1.19), P<0.0011.08 (1.02 to 1.14), P<0.011.09 (1.03 to 1.15), P=0.004
Average nighttime systolic BP (HR per 5-mm Hg higher systolic BP)1.12 (1.07 to 1.17), P<0.0011.07 (1.03 to 1.12), P=0.0031.07 (1.02 to 1.12), P=0.01
Long-term systolic BP variability SD of average visit-to-visit systolic BP (HR per 5-mm Hg higher systolic BP SD)1.28 (1.08 to 1.51), P=0.0041.31 (1.08 to 1.58), P<0.011.24 (1.01 to 1.51), P=0.04
Short-term (24-h) variability weighted SD of average 24-h systolic BP (HR per 5-mm Hg higher systolic BP weighted SD)1.85 (1.45 to 2.37), P<0.0011.08 (0.81 to 1.43), P=0.590.92 (0.68 to 1.25), P=0.61
Short-term (daytime) variability SD of average daytime systolic BP (HR per 5-mm Hg higher systolic BP weighted SD)1.59 (1.31 to 1.94), P<0.0011.01 (0.81 to 1.27), P=0.930.91 (0.71 to 1.16), P=0.43
Short-term (nighttime) variability SD of average nighttime systolic BP (HR per 5-mm Hg higher systolic BP weighted SD)1.43 (1.15 to 1.78), P=0.0021.18 (0.94 to 1.49), P=0.161.06 (0.83 to 1.37), P=0.63
  • The combined end point of this study was all-cause death and nonfatal cardiovascular events (Supplemental Table S1 has details). For all BP metrics, data are adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, diabetes, cholesterol, smoking, hemoglobin, eGFR, background cardiovascular comorbidities, 24-hour urinary protein, and number of antihypertensive drugs in model 1. In model 2, each BP determinant is adjusted for the corresponding mean values or systolic BP variability values as appropriate. HR, hazard ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.