Table 3.

Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for beverage patterns and incident CKD

Beverage PatternModelaCategorical AnalysisContinuous Analysis
Tertile 1Tertile 2Tertile 3
Alcohol11 [Ref]1.29 (0.90 to 1.85)1.04 (0.71 to 1.51)0.96 (0.83 to 1.11)
21 [Ref]1.20 (0.68 to 1.74)1.09 (0.68 to 1.74)1.01 (0.86 to 1.18)
31 [Ref]1.22 (0.76 to 1.97)1.38 (0.83 to 2.30)1.12 (0.95 to 1.35)
Fruit and vegetable juice11 [Ref]1.36 (0.93 to 1.97)1.31 (0.90 to 1.92)1.01 (0.89 to 1.15)
21 [Ref]1.10 (0.73 to 1.65)1.05 (0.70 to 1.58)0.97 (0.83 to 1.13)
31 [Ref]1.26 (0.79 to 2.00)1.19 (0.75 to 1.90)1.01 (0.84 to 1.20)
Diet beverages11 [Ref]0.82 (0.57 to 1.19)0.97 (0.67 to 1.38)1.04 (0.92 to 1.18)
21 [Ref]0.82 (0.55 to 1.22)0.74 (0.50 to 1.09)0.95 (0.82 to 1.10)
31 [Ref]0.89 (0.57 to 1.39)0.80 (0.51 to 1.25)0.95 (0.79 to 1.14)
Sugar-sweetened beverage11 [Ref]1.30 (0.88 to 1.93)1.80 (1.24 to 2.62)1.20 (1.07 to 1.34)
21 [Ref]1.18 (0.77 to 1.82)1.61 (1.07 to 2.41)1.19 (1.05 to 1.35)
31 [Ref]1.19 (0.75 to 1.91)1.37 (0.86 to 2.16)1.18 (1.00 to 1.39)
  • Bolding denotes statistically significant results. Ref, reference value.

  • a Model 1 was unadjusted. Model 2 was adjusted for total energy intake, age, sex, education, body mass index, smoking status, physical activity index, hypertension, diabetes, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, history of cardiovascular disease, and baseline eGFR. Model 3 was adjusted for all of the covariates in model 2 plus scores for a healthy dietary pattern and a Southern dietary pattern.