Table 4.

Risk differences (95% confidence intervals) for beverage patterns and incident CKD

Beverage PatternCategorical AnalysisContinuous Analysis
ModelaTertile 1Tertile 2Tertile 3
Alcohol11 [Ref]0.0150 (−0.0064 to 0.0363)0.0020 (−0.0183 to 0.0223)−0.0025 (−0.0106 to 0.0055)
21 [Ref]0.0096 (−0.0124 to 0.0316)0.0042 (−0.0191 to 0.0275)0.0004 (−0.0078 to 0.0086)
31 [Ref]0.0097 (−0.0133 to 0.0328)0.0165 (−0.0093 to 0.0423)0.0065 (−0.0034 to 0.0163)
Fruit and vegetable juice11 [Ref]0.0170 (−0.0037 to 0.0377)0.0150 (−0.0056 to 0.0355)0.0008 (−0.0066 to 0.0082)
21 [Ref]0.0047 (−0.0162 to 0.0256)0.0026 (−0.0179 to 0.0231)−0.0015 (−0.0092 to 0.0063)
31 [Ref]0.0114 (−0.0117 to 0.0345)0.0086 (−0.0140 to 0.0313)0.0004 (−0.0088 to 0.0095)
Diet beverages11 [Ref]−0.0110 (−0.0319 to 0.0099)−0.0020 (−0.0236 to 0.0196)0.0024 (−0.0051 to 0.0099)
21 [Ref]−0.0107 (−0.0323 to 0.0109)−0.0158 (−0.0365 to 0.0048)−0.0027 (−0.0099 to 0.0046)
31 [Ref]−0.0061 (−0.0299 to 0.0176)−0.0117 (−0.0350 to 0.0116)−0.0027 (−0.0117 to 0.0063)
Sugar-sweetened beverage11 [Ref]0.0130 (−0.0065 to 0.0325)0.0340 (0.0127 to 0.0552)b0.0111 (0.0039 to 0.0182)b
21 [Ref]0.0077 (−0.0121 to 0.0276)0.0246 (0.0041 to 0.0450)b0.0095 (0.0024 to 0.0166)b
31 [Ref]0.0085 (−0.0139 to 0.0309)0.0158 (−0.0072 to 0.0387)0.0090 (−0.0002 to 0.0183)
  • Ref, reference value.

  • a Model 1 was unadjusted. Model 2 was adjusted for total energy intake, age, sex, education, body mass index, smoking status, physical activity index, hypertension, diabetes, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, history of cardiovascular disease, and baseline eGFR. Model 3 was adjusted for all of the covariates in model 2 plus scores for a healthy dietary pattern and a Southern dietary pattern.

  • b Denotes statistically significant results.