Table 1.

Characteristics of patients in the Veterans Affairs Health system with diabetes and CKD

VariablesStage 3 CKD, n=254,985Stage 4 CKD, n=26,238
Age, yr, %
 18–440.130.21
 45–641414
 ≥658686
Men, %9898
Race, %
 White8380
 Black1418
 Other3.03.0
Diagnostic Cost Group RRS, mean (SD)2 (3)3 (4)
History of cardiovascular disease, %a5565
History of hypertension, %9193
Receiving care at a teaching facility, %4041
Receiving care from a physician providerb, %7576
Number of primary care visits, mean (SD)6 (6)7 (7)
eGFR, mean (SD)48 (8)24 (4)
Use of ACEIs or ARBs, %6459
Use of statins, %8584
UACR/UPR measurement, %3329
Hemoglobin measurement, %7472
BP<130/80 mm Hg, %3234
BP<140/90 mm Hg, %4749
  • RRS, relative risk score; ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; UACR, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio; UPR, urine protein-to-creatinine ratio.

  • a History of cardiovascular disease includes a history of ischemic heart disease, peripheral artery disease, or ischemic cerebrovascular disease.

  • b Missing data: provider type: n=3804 (stage 3 CKD), n=446 (stage 4 CKD); Diagnostic Cost Group RRS (stage 3 CKD): 4517, Diagnostic Cost Group RRS (stage 4 CKD): 464.