Table 1.

Population characteristics and crude and adjusted prevalence and prevalence ratios of opioid, gabapentinoid, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug prescriptions at Geisinger Health System and Johns Hopkins Medicine in 2016

Characteristic/Outcome2016 Geisinger Health System,an=181,1072016 Johns Hopkins Medicine,an=109,219
Opioidsb,cGabapentinoidcNSAIDscOpioidsb,cGabapentinoidcNSAIDsc
Population characteristics
 Age, yr, mean (SD)59 (17)59 (16)54 (16)57 (15)58 (14)53 (15)
 Women, %616262636565
 Black, %333353637
Crude period prevalence, %
 Total31.811.227.122.77.825.2
 G131.710.832.620.46.527.2
 G229.610.526.821.97.625.3
 G335.913.218.031.412.619.1
 G4/G5d49.016.97.848.717.37.6
Adjusted period prevalence,e % (95% CI)
 Total29.1 (28.7 to 29.5)9.9 (9.7 to 10.1)27.1 (26.5 to 27.7)19.7 (19.3 to 20.1)6.3 (6.1 to 6.5)19.0 (18.6 to 19.4)
 G133.0 (32.4 to 33.6)12.1 (11.7 to 12.5)23.6 (23.2 to 24.0)21.2 (20.4 to 22.0)7.4 (6.8 to 8.0)21.4 (20.6 to 22.2)
 G226.4 (26.0 to 26.8)8.9 (8.7 to 9.1)20.2 (19.2 to 21.2)18.3 (17.7 to 18.9)5.6 (5.2 to 6.0)20.1 (19.5 to 20.7)
 G335.6 (34.6 to 36.6)13.9 (13.1 to 14.7)6.7 (5.3 to 8.1)27.6 (26.0 to 29.2)10.6 (9.6 to 11.6)18.6 (17.2 to 20.0)
 G4/G5d55.2 (52.3 to 58.1)20.1 (17.7 to 22.5)22.7 (22.3 to 23.1)46.4 (41.7 to 51.1)14.8 (11.5 to 18.1)10.1 (7.2 to 13.0)
Adjusted prevalence ratios,e % (95% CI)
 G1ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 G20.9 (0.9 to 0.9)0.9 (0.9 to 1.0)0.9 (0.9 to 1.0)1.0 (1.0 to 1.0)1.0 (1.0 to 1.1)1.0 (1.0 to 1.0)
 G31.0 (1.0 to 1.1)1.1 (1.1 to 1.2)0.7 (0.7 to 0.7)1.3 (1.2 to 1.3)1.4 (1.3 to 1.5)0.7 (0.7 to 0.8)
 G4/G5d1.4 (1.4 to 1.5)1.4 (1.3 to 1.6)0.3 (0.3 to 0.3)1.9 (1.8 to 2.1)1.9 (1.7 to 2.2)0.3 (0.2 to 0.3)
  • NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.

  • a In 2016, the total Geisinger population had a mean (SD) age of 57.6 (17.5) years old, 57.0% were women, and 2.5% were black. At Johns Hopkins Medicine, mean (SD) age was 54.1 (16.1) years old, 59.1% were women, and 29.2% were black.

  • b The percentage of patients in 2016 who had record of prescription opioids for methadone and buprenorpine was 0.9% at Geisinger and 0.3% at Johns Hopkins Medicine.

  • c Serum creatinine measurement and prescription documentation were not necessarily concomitant. Median time between creatinine measurement and prescription was 65 days in both cohorts for opioids; 74 and 77 days for gabapentinoids in Geisinger and Johns Hopkins, respectively; and 75 and 82 days for NSAIDs in Geisinger and Johns Hopkins, respectively.

  • d Individuals receiving dialysis were included in this category. Individuals with a history of kidney transplant were categorized according to their eGFR at the time that serum creatinine was measured.

  • e Adjusted for age, sex, and race. Adjusted period prevalence estimates are shown for a white man age 60 years old.