Table 1.

Common adverse effects of the major antihypertensive drug classes in CKD

Drug classAdverse Effect
ACEIsHyperkalemia, cough
ARBsHyperkalemia
Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockersPeripheral edema
Thiazide diureticsVolume depletion, hypokalemia, hyponatremia, glucose intolerance
Loop diureticsVolume depletion, hypokalemia
β-Adrenergic blocking agentsBradycardia, especially with atenolol
Mineralocorticoid receptor blockersHyperkalemia, especially when used with ACEi/ARB
Director vasodilatorsPeripheral edema, hirsutism with minoxidil
Centrally acting α-agonistsFatigue, bradycardia especially when used with BABA
  • ACEi, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; BABA, β-adrenergic blocking agent.