Table 2.

Baseline characteristics of patients with Medicaid versus no insurance at the start of dialysis

CharacteristicNo Insurance at Day 1, n=6358Medicaid at Day 1, n=4322
N or MeanPercent or SDN or MeanPercent or SD
Age, yra48114811
Sexb
 Women210533%187844%
 Men425367%244457%
Raceb
 White357156%239655%
 Black251840%164938%
 Otherc2694%2776%
Ethnicity
 Hispanicd152124%103924%
 Employedb,e102116%3749%
BMI, kg/m2f
 <18.51893%1263%
 18.5 to <30360757%241056%
 30 to <40183129%122229%
 ≥4067711%52312%
Albumin, g/dla,f
 <2.5107223%79726%
 2.5 to <3117026%76125%
 3 to <3.5120226%72423%
 ≥3.5113325%80726%
Hemoglobin category, g/dlb,f
 <8136325%76920%
 8 to <9135624%87423%
 9 to <11208638%159842%
 ≥1174413%54815%
Comorbidities
 Coronary artery diseaseb4247%42010%
 Congestive heart failureb128020%110726%
 Cancerb1212%1323%
 Hypertensiona561488%372186%
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseb2314%2867%
 Diabetes mellitusb289446%236655%
 Peripheral vascular diseaseb3235%3829%
 Prior strokeb2774%3087%
 Drug dependencea4016%3408%
 Smoker78512%51012%
 Patient institutionalizedb952%2466%
 Needs assistance with ADLs and/or inability to transferb3035%48311%
Facility characteristics
 Large dialysis organization417266%286966%
 Facility is for profita533184%369385%
 Facility is hospital basedb62510%2917%
Total facility patients per yearb
 0–50111418%69316%
 51–100272643%170840%
 101–150150924%112426%
 >150100916%79718%
Full-time patient-to-nurse/technician ratiob
 <7336853%208948%
 ≥7299047%223352%
Residence characteristics
 Urban476275%323475%
Poverty in zip code,b %
 <15214334%127430%
 15 to <25224435%160337%
 ≥25197131%144533%
Less than high school education in zip code,b %
 <15235437%145034%
 15 to <30286945%198546%
 ≥30113518%88721%
Year of dialysis start
 2010112718%77018%
 2011222335%143033%
 2012185229%135831%
 2013115618%76418%
Season of dialysis starta
 Winter177328%112626%
 Spring151124%113226%
 Summer153224%103324%
 Fall154224%103124%
  • BMI, body mass index; ADL, Activities of Daily Living.

  • a P<0.05.

  • b P<0.001.

  • c Other race includes Asian, Native American, Pacific Islander, and people with unknown or missing race.

  • d Hispanic ethnicity was determined using the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services-2728 (CMS-2728) form.

  • e Employment status was determined using the CMS-2728 form and included full-time and part-time employment. Patients who were retired, students, and homemakers were categorized as not employed.

  • f The following variables had missing values: body mass index (n=95, 1% missing), serum albumin (n=3014, 28% missing), and hemoglobin concentration (n=1342, 13% missing).