Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of patients with Medicare versus no insurance at the start of dialysis ages 60–69 years old

CharacteristicNo Insurance at Day 1, n=907Medicare at Day 1, n=4388
N or MeanPercent or SDN or MeanPercent or SD
Age, yra621.4671.4
Sex
 Women42046%203746%
 Men48754%235154%
Race
 White61167%309070%
 Black24928%112626%
 Otherb475%1724%
Ethnicity
 Hispanica,c23726%59814%
 Employeda,d748%1654%
 Dual eligible00%122528%
BMI, kg/m2a,e
 <18.5313%1674%
 18.5 to <3056262%236854%
 30 to <4024327%132130%
 ≥40657%49912%
Albumin, g/dle
 <2.515323%66521%
 2.5 to <316325%83226%
 3 to <3.517226%87128%
 ≥3.516726%78725%
Hemoglobin category, g/dla,e
 <817022%56815%
 8 to <920526%91224%
 9 to <1129637%179347%
 ≥1112015%57515%
Comorbidities
 Coronary artery diseasea10912%98823%
 Congestive heart failurea23326%161437%
 Cancera344%41810%
 Hypertension80389%380587%
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseasea657%66415%
 Diabetes mellitusf50055%268861%
 Peripheral vascular diseasea768%70116%
 Prior strokea698%53512%
 Drug dependence313%1042%
 Smokerf9110%3288%
 Patient institutionalizeda263%58313%
 Needs assistance with ADLs and/or inability to transfera779%87520%
Facility characteristics
 Large dialysis organizationf56062%286565%
 Facility is for profitf73781%371685%
 Facility is hospital basedf10512%3929%
Total facility patients per yearf
 0–5016318%92621%
 51–10038743%194944%
 101–15021624%94522%
 >15014116%56813%
Full-time patient-to-nurse/technician ratio
 <747352%239655%
 ≥743448%199245%
Residence characteristics
 Urbana67574%294867%
Poverty in zip code,f %
 <1533937%191044%
 15 to <2531435%145133%
 ≥2525428%102723%
Less than high school education in zip code,a %
 <1534638%201646%
 15 to <3039143%180841%
 ≥3017019%56413%
Year of dialysis start
 201016218%73717%
 201130133%147534%
 201229032%139532%
 201315417%78118%
Season of dialysis start
 Winter25628%117527%
 Spring21023%102723%
 Summer23526%117427%
 Fall20623%101223%
  • BMI, body mass index; ADL, Activities of Daily Living.

  • a P<0.001.

  • b Other race includes Asian, Native American, Pacific Islander, and people with unknown or missing race.

  • c Hispanic ethnicity was determined using the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services-2728 (CMS-2728) form.

  • d Employment status was determined using the CMS-2728 form, and it included full-time and part-time employment. Patients who were retired, students, and homemakers were categorized as not employed.

  • e The following variables had missing values: body mass index (n=39, 1% missing), serum albumin (n=1485, 28% missing), and hemoglobin concentration (n=656, 12% missing).

  • f P<0.05.