Table 4.

Adjusted prevalence ratios for masked hypertension and sustained hypertension among those with controlled clinic BP and elevated clinic BP, respectively

CovariateN with Outcome/N at RiskaUnadjusted Proportion (%)Adjusted PR (95% CI)P Value
Controlled clinic BP (PR for masked hypertension)
 Cohort
  CKD-JAC318 of 685461 (reference)
  CRIC369 of 970380.82 (0.72 to 0.94)0.003
  AASK196 of 344571.21 (1.04 to 1.41)0.01
  Italian cohort43 of 133320.73 (0.56 to 0.95)0.02
  Spanish cohort265 of 877300.75 (0.64 to 0.88)<0.001
 Age (per 10 yr)0.97 (0.93 to 1.01)0.11
 Sex
  Female411 of 1273321 (reference)
  Male780 of 1736451.30 (1.18 to 1.42)<0.001
 eGFR categories
  ≥45402 of 1192341 (reference)
  30–45372 of 935401.04 (0.92 to 1.17)0.55
  <30417 of 882471.16 (1.03 to 1.30)0.02
 Diabetes
  No756 of 2048371 (reference)
  Yes435 of 961451.23 (1.12 to 1.35)<0.001
 BMI (per 5 units)1.00 (0.96 to 1.04)0.90
 CVD (w/o PVD)
  No804 of 2130381 (reference)
  Yes387 of 879441.04 (0.95 to 1.15)0.40
 Hypertension meds
  0742 of 2047360.97 (0.80 to 1.17)0.73
  1–377 of 246311 (reference)
  4+372 of 716521.25 (1.14 to 1.38)<0.001
Elevated clinic BP (PR for sustained hypertension)
 Cohort
  CKD-JAC238 of 292821 (reference)
  CRIC230 of 289801.05 (0.96 to 1.14)0.29
  AASK203 of 221921.22 (1.13 to 1.32)<0.001
  Italian cohort174 of 295590.78 (0.70 to 0.87)<0.001
  Spanish cohort2036 of 3264620.89 (0.82 to 0.96)0.002
 Age (per 10 yr)0.97 (0.95 to 0.99)<0.001
 Sex
  Female1256 of 2100601 (reference)
  Male1625 of 2261721.15 (1.10 to 1.20)<0.001
 eGFR categories
  ≥451694 of 2712621 (reference)
  30–45625 of 931671.02 (0.97 to 1.08)0.40
  <30562 of 718781.12 (1.06 to 1.19)<0.001
 Diabetes
  No1726 of 2747631 (reference)
  Yes1155 of 1614721.14 (1.09 to 1.19)<0.001
 BMI (per five units)0.97 (0.95 to 0.99)0.01
 CVD (w/o PVD)
  No2169 of 3358651 (reference)
  Yes712 of 1003711.04 (0.99 to 1.09)0.13
 Hypertension meds
  01803 of 2850631.02 (0.94 to 1.09)0.66
  1–3308 of 491631 (reference)
  4+770 of 1020751.10 (1.05 to 1.15)<0.001
  • PR, prevalence ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; CKD-JAC, Chronic Kidney Disease Japan Cohort; CRIC, Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort; AASK, African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension Cohort Study; BMI, body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease; w/o, without; PVD, peripheral vascular disease.

  • a Only includes the complete cases included in the model.