Table 1.

Characteristics of pre-emptively listed candidates in nonexpansion and expansion states, pre- and postexpansion

CharacteristicJanuary 1, 2011–December 31, 2013January 1, 2014–December 31, 2016
Nonexpansion State (n=19)Expansion Statea (n=24+DC)Nonexpansion State (n=19)Expansion Statea (n=24+DC)
n=8487n=15,525n=9801n=17,145
Age at listing, yr55 (44, 63)55 (45, 63)54 (44, 63)55 (45, 63)
Race/ethnicity
 White5429 (64)9090 (59)6005 (61)9697 (57)
 Black1910 (23)2551 (16)2193 (22)2794 (16)
 Hispanic775 (9)1998 (13)1020 (10)2358 (14)
 Other373 (4)1886 (12)583 (6)2296 (13)
Male4762 (56)8964 (58)5451 (56)9975 (58)
BMI kg/m228.8 (25.1, 32.9)28.4 (24.8, 32.5)28.7 (25.1, 32.7)28.4 (24.7, 32.6)
Diabetes status
 Nondiabetic5651 (67)10,088 (65)6567 (67)11,052 (65)
 Diabetic2826 (33)5417 (35)3229 (33)6088 (36)
 Unknown10 (0.1)20 (0.1)5 (0.1)5 (<1)
Insurance coverage
 Medicare2463 (29)3961 (26)2726 (28)4415 (26)
 Medicaid330 (4)1094 (7)359 (4)1737 (10)
 Private5694 (67)10,470 (67)6716 (69)10,993 (64)
United States citizen8319 (98)14,785 (95)9511 (97)16,071 (94)
Education level
 Less than high school226 (3)635 (4)221 (2)706 (4)
 High school graduate4971 (59)8741 (56)5329 (54)9456 (55)
 ≥College graduate3020 (36)5646 (36)3798 (39)6664 (39)
 Missing/unknown270 (3)503 (3)453 (5)319 (2)
Prior transplant1121 (13)2056 (13)1193 (12)2122 (12)
Employed
 No3838 (45)7387 (48)4278 (44)7914 (46)
 Yes4435 (52)7884 (51)5329 (54)9061 (53)
 Unknown214 (3)254 (2)194 (2)170 (1)
Independent functionb
 No1849 (22)2372 (15)2120 (22)2616 (15)
 Yes6515 (77)12,508 (81)7428 (76)14,200 (83)
 Missing123 (1)645 (4)253 (3)329 (2)
  • Values presented as median (interquartile range) and n (%). DC, District of Columbia; BMI, body mass index.

  • a Excludes seven states that implemented Medicaid expansion between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2016.

  • b Defined as Karnofsky Performance Status Scale ≥80%.