Table 1.

Demographic and clinical characteristics of 7962 children who underwent kidney biopsy in China from 2004 to 2014

CharacteristicsTotal, n=7962Sex
Boys, n=5089Girls, n=2873
Clinical syndrome, n (%)
 Nephrotic syndrome3993 (50)2858 (56)1135 (39)
 Proteinuria and hematuria2120 (26)1190 (23)930 (32)
 Proteinuria772 (10)408 (8)364 (13)
 Hematuria661 (8)377 (7)284 (10)
 AKI286 (4)174 (3)112 (4)
 Progressive CKDa130 (2)82 (2)48 (2)
Age, yr, mean (SD)13.5 (4.1)13.7 (4.1)13.1 (4.3)
 0–12, n (%)2615 (33)1551 (31)1064 (37)
 13–18, n (%)5347 (67)3538 (69)1809 (63)
Time of kidney biopsy, n (%)
 2004–2007768 (10)466 (9)302 (11)
 2008–20111640 (21)1065 (21)575 (20)
 2012–20145554 (69)3558 (70)1996 (69)
Hospital level,b n (%)
 Tertiary class A6576 (83)4168 (82)2408 (84)
 Tertiary class B666 (8)442 (9)224 (8)
 Secondary720 (9)479 (9)241 (8)
Region, n (%)
 South6466 (81)4181 (82)2285 (80)
 North1496 (19)908 (18)588 (20)
Serum creatinine, mg/dl, median (IQR)0.70 (0.52–0.93)0.75 (0.57–0.97)0.59 (0.47–0.82)
  • All cells except average age and serum creatinine are expressed as n (% within the strata). IQR, interquartile range.

  • a Defined as eGFR≤60 ml/min per 1.73 m2.

  • b According to the Classification of Chinese Hospitals, which is available at https://www.hqms.org.cn/usp/roster/index.jsp.