Table 2.

Factors associated with sodium correction >8 mEq/L at 24 hours in patients admitted to Geisinger system hospitals with an initial serum sodium <120 mEq/L

VariablesOR (95% CI)
UnadjustedModel 1Model 2Model 3
Academic center0.65 (0.53 to 0.81)a0.70 (0.54 to 0.90)a0.70 (0.52 to 0.94)b0.70 (0.54 to 0.91)a
Women1.34 (1.08 to 1.65)a1.49 (1.14 to 1.96)a1.73 (1.26 to 2.37)a1.50 (1.14 to 1.96)a
Age, per 1 yr0.98 (0.97 to 0.99)a0.98 (0.97 to 0.99)a0.98 (0.97 to 0.99)a0.98 (0.97 to 0.99)a
White1.03 (0.49 to 2.15)1.03 (0.37 to 2.92)0.74 (0.23 to 2.35)1.01 (0.36 to 2.88)
Schizophrenia2.73 (1.34 to 5.57)a2.24 (1.03 to 4.89)b2.48 (1.02 to 6.02)b2.24 (1.03 to 4.88)b
Congestive heart failure0.60 (0.45 to 0.81)a0.94 (0.66 to 1.33)1.08 (0.72 to 1.63)0.94 (0.67 to 1.34)
Charlson comorbidity index0.86 (0.82 to 0.89)a0.94 (0.89 to 0.99)b0.93 (0.87 to 0.99)b0.94 (0.88 to 0.99)b
Outpatient Na+ <1350.52 (0.41 to 0.67)a0.62 (0.48 to 0.81)a0.62 (0.46 to 0.84)a0.62 (0.48 to 0.81)a
Inpatient baseline Na+ at hospitalization0.88 (0.86 to 0.91)a0.90 (0.87 to 0.93)a0.90 (0.87 to 0.93)a0.90 (0.87 to 0.93)a
Urine Na+ <30 mEq/L1.46 (1.15 to 1.85)a1.58 (1.17 to 2.13)a
K+≥5 mEq/L0.87 (0.66 to 1.16)1.22 (0.88 to 1.71)1.14 (0.76 to 1.70)1.23 (0.87 to 1.74)
K+<3.5 mEq/L1.81 (1.41 to 2.33)a1.32 (0.97 to 1.79)1.39 (0.97 to 1.97)1.24 (0.88 to 1.73)
Loop diuretics (outpatient)0.42 (0.31 to 0.56)a0.71 (0.49 to 1.02)0.66 (0.43 to 1.01)0.71 (0.49 to 1.02)
Aldosterone antagonists (outpatient)0.33 (0.21 to 0.52)a0.48 (0.28 to 0.82)a0.45 (0.23 to 0.84)b0.48 (0.28 to 0.83)a
Hypertonic saline (inpatient)2.03 (1.49 to 2.76)a1.09 (0.73 to 1.64)
Electrolyte repletion (inpatient)1.71 (1.37 to 2.13a1.14 (0.84 to 1.55)
Vaptans (inpatient)0.93 (0.36 to 2.41)1.21 (0.40 to 3.63)
ICU stay in the first 24 h after admission1.01 (0.78 to 1.30)1.07 (0.79 to 1.44)
  • Model 1 included all significant unadjusted risk factors of rapid correction except for urine sodium or inpatient treatment factors. Model 2 included model 1 covariates and urine sodium (<30 or ≥30 mEq/L). Model 3 included model 1 covariates and inpatient treatment factors. OR, odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; Na+, sodium; K+, potassium; ICU, intensive care unit.

  • a Significant at P=0.01.

  • b Significant at P=0.05.