Table 1.

Characteristics of adults admitted to Geisinger system hospitals with an initial serum sodium <120 mEq/L by change in serum sodium at 24 hours after admission

CharacteristicNa+ Correction of ≤8 mEq/L at 24 h, n=884Na+ Correction of >8 mEq/L at 24 h, n=606
Age, yr68 (15)63 (15)
Women, n (%)460 (52)359 (59)
Non-Hispanic white865 (98)594 (98)
Smoking status, n (%)
 Current smoker216 (26)225 (40)
 Former smoker287 (35)138 (24)
 Never smoker310 (37)186 (33)
 Unknown18 (2)18 (3)
Body mass index, kg/m228 (8)26 (6)
Systolic BP, mm Hg133 (29)136 (30)
Diastolic BP, mm Hg71 (17)74 (18)
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Chronic liver disease72 (8)36 (6)
 CKD109 (12)57 (9)
 Nonalcoholic steatohepatits13 (2)11 (2)
 Hepatic steatosis30 (3)27 (5)
 Fatty liver66 (8)35 (6)
 Alcohol abuse140 (16)122 (20)
 Malnutrition304 (34)202 (33)
 Congestive heart failure164 (19)73 (12)
 Diabetes mellitus145 (16)83 (14)
 Depression141 (16)123 (20)
 Bipolar disorder41 (5)37 (6)
 Schizophrenia12 (1)22 (4)
 Epilepsy83 (9)79 (13)
 Seizure81 (9)80 (13)
 Stroke49 (6)32 (5)
 Dementia9 (1)6 (1)
 Cancer218 (25)115 (19)
Charlson, n (%)comorbidity index
 026 (3)45 (7)
 146 (5)60 (10)
 280 (9)86 (14)
 ≥3732 (83)415 (69)
ICU stay during the first 24 h after hospital admission, n (%)187 (21)129 (21)
Outpatient Na+ value <135 mEq/L, n (%)528 (73)294 (59)
Admission laboratory values
 Sodium, mEq/L, n=1490117 (4)115 (5)
 Creatinine, mg/dl, n=14521.3 (1.5)1.3 (2.0)
 eGFR, ml/min/1.73m2, n=145272 (35)80 (36)
 Potassium, mEq/L, n=14894.3 (1.0)4.0 (1.0)
 Phosphorus, mg/dL, n=8513.5 (1.9)3.3 (2.0)
 Magnesium, mg/dL, n=9271.9 (0.4)1.8 (0.4)
 Osmolality, mOsm/kg, n=951263 (94)258 (19)
 Albumin, g/dL, n=12803.3 (0.7)3.6 (0.6)
 Glucose, mg/dL, n=1489127 (40)128 (40)
 Urine sodium, mEq/L, n=114143 (38)35 (31)
 Urine potassium, mEq/L, n=42132 (17)27 (19)
 Urine osmolality, mOsm/kg, n=1083369 (150)270 (149)
Outpatient medications, n (%)
 Thiazide diuretics64 (7)36 (6)
 Loop diuretics226 (26)76 (13)
 Aldosterone antagonists102 (12)25 (4)
 Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors150 (17)113 (19)
 Antiseizure medications154 (17)121 (20)
 Antipsychotic medications98 (11)92 (15)
Inpatient medications, n (%)
 Hypertonic saline82 (9)104 (17)
 Electrolyte repletion240 (27)236 (39)
 Vaptans11 (1)7 (1)
Mortality within 30 d of hospital admission, n (%)167 (19)46 (8)
  • Values are presented as mean (SD) or number (%). ICU, intensive care unit; Na+, sodium.