Table 3.

Association of inpatient palliative care with length of stay, hospitalization costs, and hospitalization payments by timing of first palliative care consultation stratified by cohort

OutcomesTiming of First Inpatient Palliative Care ConsultationP Valuea
Days 1 and 2 Estimated Mean Difference (95% CI)Days 3–7 Estimated Mean Difference (95% CI)After Day 7 Estimated Mean Difference (95% CI)
Decedent cohortn=172n=504n=584
 Length of stay, d−1.7 (−3.8 to 0.4)−2.6 (−4.4 to −0.8)−6.3 (−8.7 to −4)0.97
 Total hospitalization costs, $−9329 (−17,718 to −940)−8977 (−17,764 to −190)−12,587 (−25,039 to −135)0.40
 Total Medicare expenditures for hospitalization, $−4942 (−11,394 to 1510)−3813 (−8984 to 1359)−9519 (−16,001 to −3036)0.87
Nondecedent cohortn=1198n=2098n=1572
 Length of stay, d0.7 (0.0 to 1.3)0.4 (−0.1 to 0.9)0.0 (−1.7 to 1.6)0.30
 Total hospitalization costs, $3130 (203 to 6059)2480 (482 to 4478)7543 (1363 to 13,723)0.86
 Total Medicare expenditures for hospitalization, $1115 (−683 to 2913)521 (−557 to 1600)1765 (−1612 to 5141)0.84
  • There were 1260 patients in the decedent cohort and 4868 patients in the nondecedent cohort who had cost and expenditure outcomes available. 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.

  • a P value for interaction between palliative care and timing of palliative care.