Table 2.

Patient characteristics associated with withdrawal from hemodialysis before death, among patients (n=536) who died between 2001 and 2015

Characteristics at Baseline and DeathNo Withdrawal, n=274Withdrawal, n=262Withdrawal Odds Ratio (95% CI)P Value
Baseline characteristics
 Age at HD initiation, mean (SD)70 (13)74 (12)1.30 (1.12 to 1.49)a<0.001
 HD duration, mo, median [IQR]22 [8–45]24 [7–49]1.04 (0.97 to 1.12)b0.25
 Men, n (%)174 (64)147 (56)0.74 (0.52 to 1.04)0.08
 White, n (%)250 (91)251 (96)2.19 (1.05 to 4.57)0.04
 Cause of ESKD, n (%)0.36
  Polycystic kidney disease6 (2)3 (1)Reference
  Diabetic kidney disease98 (36)101 (39)2.06 (0.50 to 8.47)
  Hypertension54 (20)55 (21)2.04 (0.49 to 8.56)
  Glomerular/tubulointerstitial disease27 (10)37 (14)2.74 (0.63 to 11.94)
  Acute tubular necrosis12 (4)7 (3)1.17 (0.22 to 6.20)
  Failing kidney transplant16 (6)9 (3)1.13 (0.23 to 5.62)
  Other/unknown61 (22)50 (19)1.64 (0.39 to 6.89)
Comorbidities and characteristics  at death, n (%)
 Congestive heart failure195 (71)180 (69)0.89 (0.62 to 1.29)0.53
 Coronary artery disease198 (72)160 (61)0.60 (0.42 to 0.87)0.01
 Valvular heart disease129 (47)141 (54)1.31 (0.93 to 1.84)0.12
 Diabetes mellitus170 (62)144 (55)0.75 (0.53 to 1.05)0.10
 Malignancy87 (33)100 (38)1.33 (0.93 to 1.89)0.12
 Cerebrovascular disease94 (34)119 (45)1.59 (1.13 to 2.26)0.01
 Liver disease33 (12)34 (13)1.09 (0.65 to 1.82)0.74
 COPD84 (31)84 (32)1.07 (0.74 to 1.54)0.73
 Peripheral vascular disease127 (46)115 (44)0.91 (0.64 to 1.27)0.57
 Depression104 (38)119 (45)1.36 (0.96 to 1.92)0.08
 Hospitalization before deathc171 (62)192 (73)1.65 (1.15 to 2.39)0.01
 Palliative care consultation before deathd51 (19)90 (34)2.29 (1.54 to 3.40)<0.001
  • P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant and are denoted in bold. P values were derived using logistic regression models. 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; HD, hemodialysis; IQR, interquartile range; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  • a Per 10 years.

  • b Per year.

  • c Hospitalizations were included if they occurred ≤30 days before death.

  • d Palliative care consultations were included if they occurred ≤6 months before death.