Table 3.

Patient characteristics associated with palliative care consultation within 6 months of death, among patients (n=262) who withdrew from hemodialysis before death between 2001 and 2015

Characteristics at Baseline and DeathNo Palliative Care Consultation,an=172With Palliative Care Consultation,an=90Palliative Care Odds Ratio (95% CI)P Value
Baseline characteristics
 Age at HD initiation, mean (SD)75 (11)72 (13)0.83 (0.67 to 1.03)c0.09
 HD duration, mo, median [IQR]18 [4–42]35 [17–57]1.19 (1.08 to 1.31)d<0.001
 Men, n (%)102 (59)45 (50)0.69 (0.41 to 1.15)0.15
 White, n (%)163 (95)88 (98)2.43 (0.51 to 11.49)0.26
 Cause of ESKD, n (%)0.39
  Polycystic kidney disease1 (0.6)2 (2)Reference
  Diabetic kidney disease64 (37)37 (41)0.29 (0.03 to 3.30)
  Hypertension43 (25)12 (13)0.14 (0.01 to 1.67)
  Glomerular/tubulointerstitial disease22 (13)15 (17)0.34 (0.03 to 4.12)
  Acute tubular necrosis5 (3)2 (2)0.20 (0.01 to 3.66)
  Failing kidney transplant5 (3)4 (4)0.40 (0.03 to 6.18)
  Other/unknown32 (19)18 (20)0.28 (0.02 to 3.32)
Comorbidities and  characteristics at death, n (%)
 Congestive heart failure114 (66)66 (73)1.40 (0.80 to 2.46)0.24
 Coronary artery disease107 (62)53 (59)0.87 (0.52 to 1.47)0.60
 Valvular heart disease96 (56)45 (50)0.79 (0.48 to 1.32)0.37
 Diabetes mellitus96 (56)48 (53)0.91 (0.54 to 1.51)0.70
 Malignancy63 (37)37 (41)1.21 (0.72 to 2.04)0.48
 Cerebrovascular disease73 (42)46 (51)1.42 (0.85 to 2.37)0.18
 Liver disease19 (11)15 (17)1.61 (0.78 to 3.35)0.20
 COPD55 (32)29 (32)1.01 (0.59 to 1.75)0.97
 Peripheral vascular disease75 (44)40 (44)1.04 (0.62 to 1.73)0.90
 Depression74 (43)45 (50)1.32 (0.79 to 2.21)0.28
 Hospitalization before deathb110 (64)82 (91)5.78 (2.62 to 12.73)<0.001
 Hospital location of death (versus nonhospital)49 (29)39 (43)1.92 (1.13 to 3.27)0.02
  • P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant and are denoted in bold. P values were derived using logistic regression models. 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; HD, hemodialysis; IQR, interquartile range; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  • a Palliative care consultations were included if they occurred ≤6 months before death.

  • b Hospitalizations were included if they occurred ≤30 days before death.

  • c Age per 10 years for multivariable analyses.

  • d Per year of HD therapy for multivariable analyses.