Table 1.

Baseline characteristics in propensity score–matched patients with atrial fibrillation using direct oral anticoagulants or warfarin from October of 2010 to February of 2017 in the Geisinger Health System

VariableDirect Oral Anticoagulants (n=3206)Warfarin (n=3206)Standardized Mean Difference
Mean age (SD), yr73 (11)72 (12)0.02
Female, %47460.01
White, %98980.01
Mean eGFR (SD), ml/min per 1.73 m2a69 (21)68 (22)0.01
eGFR category, %
 ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m265650.01
 30–59 ml/min per 1.73 m231310.000
 <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2440.01
Year, %
 2010–201222220.001
 2013–201435340.02
 2015–201743440.02
Type of direct oral anticoagulant, %
 Dabigatran27
 Rivaroxaban41
 Apixaban32
History of prior anticoagulation, %37370.01
Median duration of prior anticoagulation (IQR), yrb3 (1–6)3 (1–6)0.03
Mean CHA2DS2–VASc score (SD)4 (2)4 (2)0.01
Mean HAS-BLED score (SD)2 (1)2 (1)0.02
Number of prior hospitalizations, %
 None33340.03
 1–336370.02
 4–719170.06
 ≥812120.003
Comorbidities, %
 Hypertension83830.02
 Diabetes34340.01
 Congestive heart failure31310.01
 Valvular heart disease24260.03
 Valvular atrial fibrillationc450.04
 Myocardial infarction15150.01
 Coronary artery disease41410.01
 Peripheral artery disease16160.01
 Deep vein thrombosis10100.004
 Pulmonary embolism550.01
 Bleeding35350.004
 Anemia37370.002
 Transient ischemic attack13140.01
 Ischemic stroke990.01
 ESKD0.40.50.02
Medication use, %
 NSAIDs24240.01
 Antiplatelet agents22230.03
 Statins32310.001
 RAS blockers30300.02
  • All P values are >0.05. —, not applicable; IQR, interquartile range; CHA2DS2–VASc, congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, stroke/transient ischemic attack/thromboembolism, vascular disease, age 65 to 74 years, sex category; HAS-BLED, hypertension, abnormal kidney/liver function, stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile international normalized ratio, elderly [age ≥65 years], drugs/alcohol concomitantly; NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; RAS blockers, renin-angiotensin system blockers.

  • a Median time (IQR) between eGFR measurements and initial dosing of direct oral anticoagulant was 2 d (0–45).

  • b Only among those with a history of prior anticoagulation.

  • c Valvular atrial fibrillation was defined as atrial fibrillation with rheumatic mitral stenosis or prosthetic heart valve.