Table 2.

Association of inpatient palliative care with length of stay, hospitalization costs, and Medicare payments

OutcomesDecedent CohortNondecedent Cohort
Usual Care, Mean±SDEstimated Mean Difference Associated with Palliative Carea (95% CI)Usual Care, Mean±SDEstimated Mean Difference Associated with Palliative Carea (95% CI)
Length of stay, d20.4±21.2−4.2 (−5.6 to −2.9)13.9±18.70.4 (−0.3 to 1)
Total hospitalization cost, $78,336±91,058−10,698 (−17,553 to −3843)40,351±54,2764275 (1984 to 6567)
 Hospital (facility) costs59,078±71,110−9679 (−15,125 to −4232)29,427±42,5592654 (885 to 4422)
Total Medicare expenditures, $43,086±52,372−6612 (−10,370 to −2853)23,533±29,8301069 (−197 to 2334)
 Payment to hospitals38,021±48,080−5798 (−9303 to −2892)20,743±27,440794 (−388 to 1975)
 Payment to providers5065±5495−814 (−1234 to −394)2789±4090275 (139 to 411)
  • In the decedent cohort, there were n=1308 patients included in the length of stay analysis and n=1260 patients included for costs and expenditure. In the nondecedent cohort, there were n=5024 patients included in the length of stay analysis and n=4868 patients included for costs and expenditures. Cost is not reported for providers, because cost data are not available. Total hospitalization cost uses provider charges plus cost-to-charge ratio–adjusted hospital charges. 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.

  • a Negative values indicate reduction in length of stay, costs, and payments in comparison with usual care.