Table 1.

Nephrotoxic drugs and intoxicants

Therapeutic medications
 Antimicrobial
  Aminoglycosides
  Antiviral agents
  Amphotericin B
  Colistin
  Polymixin B
  Sulfadiazine
  Quinolones
  Vancomycin
Chemotherapy
  Platins
  Ifosfamide
  Mitomycin
  Gemcitabine
  Methotrexate
  Pentostatin
  Interleukin-2 (high dose)
  Antiangiogenesis agents
  Immunotherapies (immune checkpoint inhibitors, chimeric antigen receptor T cells)
Analgesics
  NSAIDs
  Selective COX-2 inhibitors
  Phenacetin
  Analgesic combinations
Immunosuppressives
  Calcineurin inhibitors
  Sirolimus, everolimus
Other
  ACE inhibitors/ARBs/renin inhibitors
  SGLT-2 inhibitors (canagloflozin, dapagliflozin)
  Methoxyflurane
  Sucrose (IVIg excipient), hydroxyethyl starch, mannitol, dextran
  Pamidronate, Zolendronate
  Topiramate, Zonisamide
  Orlistat
  Statins
  Mesalamine
Alternative/health products
Herbal remedies
  Aristolochic acid
  Ephedra sp.
  Glycyrrhiza sp.
  Datura sp.
  Taxus celebica
  Uno degatta
  Cape aloes
Adulterants
  Mefenamic acid
  Dichromate
  Cadmium
  Phenylbutazone
  Melamine
Diagnostic agents
 Radiocontrast
  High osmolar
  Low osmolar
  Iso-osmolar
 Other agents
  Gadolinium (in high dose)
  Oral NaP solution (colonoscopy prep)
Environmental intoxicants
 Heavy metals
  Lead
  Mercury
  Cadmium
  Uranium
  Copper
  Bismuth
Solvents
 Hydrocarbons
Other toxins
  Silicon
  Germanium
  • NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; COX, cyclo-oxygenase; ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARBs, angiotensin-receptor blockers; SGLT-2, sodium glucose transporter-2; NaP, sodium phosphate; IVIg, intravenous immunoglobulin; sp., species.