Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of 140,899 adults receiving hemodialysis with Medicare Part D coverage in 2011 by opioid dose category

CharacteristicNone,an=50,775Lower Dose,bn=57,411Higher Dose,cn=32,713
Age, mean (SD), yr63 (15)61 (15)57 (15)
Duration of ESKD, median (25–75th percentiles), yr4 (2–7)4 (2–7)4 (2–7)
Sex, %
 Men574850
 Women435250
Race, %
 White514950
 Black404546
 Other964
Comorbidities, %
 Cerebrovascular disease161717
 Dementia433
 Depression71016
 Seizures/epilepsy112
 Hypertension969798
 Coronary artery disease212222
 Congestive heart failure445052
 Other cardiac disease171819
 Dysrhythmia233
 Peripheral vascular disease273235
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease152025
 Diabetes mellitus626663
 Liver disease101216
 Cancer778
 Tobacco dependence81321
 Alcohol dependence112
 Drug dependence236
 Opioid dependence0.10.11
 Inability to ambulate334
 Inability to transfer111
 Osteoporosis233
 Osteopenia112
Body mass index, kg/m2, %
 <20877
 20 to <25282422
 25 to <30292726
 ≥30354245
  • a No opioid use in 2011.

  • b Received only lower doses (0< average daily total dose ≤60 mg oral morphine equivalents) in 2011.

  • c Received at least one higher dose (average daily total dose >60 mg oral morphine equivalents) in 2011.