Table 4.

Involvement of large middle molecules with secondary immunodeficiency

Middle MoleculeAssociationsPossible Mechanisms
Ig light chainsImpaired PMNL function; infectious mortalityInterference with caspase-3 activity; interference with normal PMNL apoptosis
Retinol binding protein 4Impaired PMNL functionInterference with upstream complement receptor signaling within PMNLs
FGF-23Leukocyte inhibitionInterference with chemokine signaling
α1-Acid glycoproteinImpaired PMNL functionNeutrophil migration
  • PMNL, polymorphonuclear leukocyte; FGF, fibroblast growth factor.