Table 2.

Characteristics associated with lacking awareness (versus being aware) of racial differences in national kidney transplant waitlisting among providers from 655 dialysis facilities with low waitlisting across all 18 ESKD networks in 2016

CharacteristicsCrude OR, Unaware versus Aware (95% CI)Adjusted OR,a Unaware versus Aware (95% CI)
Responder characteristics
 Sex
  MenReference
  Women3.93 (2.58 to 6.00)1.55 (0.79 to 3.04)
  Prefer not to answer10.2 (2.35 to 44.4)5.06 (0.26 to 97.4)
 Role at facility
  Medical directorReference
  Nurse manager8.49 (5.11 to 14.1)7.33 (3.35 to 16.0)
  Facility administrator7.20 (3.68 to 14.1)6.05 (2.42 to 15.1)
  Social worker4.07 (2.13 to 7.78)3.04 (1.22 to 7.57)
  Other staff3.31 (1.02 to 10.8)3.08 (0.72 to 13.2)
 Race/ethnicity
  BlackReference
  White (non-Hispanic)2.01 (1.17 to 3.46)2.64 (1.39 to 5.02)
  Hispanic2.31 (0.86 to 6.20)3.24 (0.97 to 10.8)
  Otherb0.92 (0.46 to 1.84)2.71 (1.09 to 6.73)
  Prefer not to answer2.75 (1.14 to 6.63)3.02 (0.96 to 9.44)
 Age, yr
  21–39Reference
  40–491.60 (0.93 to 2.76)1.00 (0.52 to 1.90)
  50–591.35 (0.75 to 2.44)1.35 (0.66 to 2.74)
  60 or older2.82 (1.50 to 5.30)0.61 (0.29 to 1.32)
  Prefer not to answer0.50 (0.14 to 1.74)1.10 (0.13 to 9.65)
 Transplant and racial disparities knowledge questions
  On average, white patients are on dialysis for a longer time than black patients—incorrectc3.37 (2.23 to 5.10)2.83 (1.75 to 4.55)
Facility characteristics
 No. of patients
  >95Reference
  ≤501.46 (0.86 to 2.48)
  51–701.13 (0.66 to 1.94)
  71–951.11 (0.63 to 1.95)
 No. of staff
  ≤10Reference
  11–151.15 (0.69 to 1.91)
  16–201.00 (0.57 to 1.77)
  >200.94 (0.53 to 1.67)
 Low percentage of black patients at the facility (<23%; versus high)1.59 (1.02 to 2.47)1.86 (1.02 to 3.39)
 Facility had waitlisting racial disparity in 2014 (black versus white)1.09 (0.74 to 1.62)
 Percentage of families below national poverty level (by zip code of facility)
  0–10Reference
  10–150.98 (0.55 to 1.74)0.67 (0.34 to 1.32)
  15–200.57 (0.33 to 0.98)0.34 (0.17 to 0.67)
  ≥200.73 (0.43 to 1.26)0.74 (0.37 to 1.50)
 Insurance types, %
  Medicaid only1.00 (0.98 to 1.01)1.01 (0.99 to 1.03)
  Medicare1.01 (0.99 to 1.02)
  Employer based1.00 (0.98 to 1.02)
  Other insurance1.01 (0.97 to 1.05)
  Uninsured0.99 (0.96 to 1.01)
 Comorbidities per 1% increase
  Average count of comorbidities0.88 (0.60 to 1.27)
  Diabetes, %1.02 (1.00 to 1.04)
  Hypertension, %1.02 (1.00 to 1.04)
  Congestive heart failure, %0.99 (0.97 to 1.00)
  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, %0.99 (0.96 to 1.02)
  Cancer, %0.97 (0.93 to 1.02)
 Profit (versus nonprofit)1.44 (0.79 to 2.63)
 US Census regions
  NortheastReference
  South3.12 (1.40 to 6.97)3.05 (1.04 to 8.94)
  Midwest2.61 (1.08 to 6.33)1.66 (0.54 to 5.14)
  West3.44 (1.20 to 9.82)2.44 (0.65 to 9.17)
  • OR, odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; —, variable was not included in the multivariable analyses.

  • a Adjusted for provider sex, role, race, age, kidney transplant racial disparity knowledge, facility number of patients, number of staff, high versus low percentage of black patients, poverty level of facility zip code, percentage of patients on Medicaid, and US Census regions.

  • b Other includes those who self-identified as “Asian,” “American Indian or Alaskan Native,” “Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander,” and “Multiple Races.”

  • c Providers who did not respond “false” to the statement “On average, white patients are on dialysis for a longer time than African-American patients.”