Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of individuals with diabetes receiving four classes of antihypertensive medications added on to angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers (n=21,897)

VariableOverallβ-BlockersCalcium Channel BlockersLoop DiureticsThiazide Diuretics
N21,8977343270520819768
Demographic characteristics
 Age, mean±SD62±1263±1264±1266±1360±12
 Women, n (%)10,768 (49)3464 (47)1307 (48)1267 (61)4730 (48)
 Race/ethnicity, n (%)
  White12,649 (58)4507 (61)1348 (50)1464 (70)5330 (55)
  Other6761 (31)2187 (30)980 (36)434 (21)3160 (32)
  Black1665 (8)388 (5)289 (11)132 (6)856 (9)
  Missing822 (4)261 (4)88 (3)51 (2)422 (4)
 Year of index date,a n (%)
  2005–20087735 (35)2808 (38)697 (26)676 (32)3554 (36)
  20094489 (21)1366 (19)598 (22)380 (18)2145 (22)
  20103728 (17)1097 (15)624 (23)299 (14)1708 (17)
  20112825 (13)949 (13)409 (15)356 (17)1111 (11)
  20123120 (14)1123 (15)377 (14)370 (18)1250 (13)
 Medicare, n (%)9472 (43)3519 (48)1324 (49)1224 (59)3405 (35)
 Commercial insurance,a N (%)16,070 (73)5147 (70)1938 (72)1327 (64)7658 (78)
 Smoking, n (%)
  Current1839 (8)640 (8)203 (8)163 (8)833 (9)
  Former/never14,399 (66)4961 (68)1765 (65)1472 (71)6201 (63)
  Missing5659 (26)1742 (24)737 (27)446 (21)2734 (28)
 Body mass index,b mean±SD33.0±7.731.9±7.131.5±7.236.5±9.533.4±7.7
  No. (%) missing444 (2)93 (1)69 (3)42 (2)240 (2)
Baseline BP,b mm Hg,  mean±SD
 Systolic BP, most recent142±17138±18148±17135±17145±15
 Diastolic BP, most recent79±1178±1181±1274±1181±11
 Systolic BP,a maximum153±17151±17158±18150±16154±16
 Diastolic BP, maximum86±1185±1086±1182±1087±10
Baseline laboratory valuesc
 eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m2, mean±SD81±2180±2177±2275±2385±19
 eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, n (%)3713 (17)1382 (19)637 (24)582 (28)1112 (11)
 A1c, %, mean±SD7.5±1.67.5±1.67.4±1.57.4±1.67.6±1.6
  No. (%) missing894 (4)332 (5)118 (4)116 (6)328 (3)
 HDL, mg/dl, mean±SD47±1346±1348±1348±1447±13
  No. (%) missing1570 (7)553 (8)188 (7)217 (10)612 (6)
 LDL, mg/dl, mean±SD92 (33)91 (33)92 (32)90 (34)93 (32)
  No. (%) missing961 (4)349 (5)106 (4)152 (7)354 (4)
 Potassium,a mEq, mean±SD4.5 (0.4)4.5 (0.4)4.5 (0.4)4.5 (0.4)4.5 (0.4)
  No. (%) missing884 (4)273 (4)111 (4)52 (3)448 (5)
 Albuminuria,a,d n (%)
  Normal11,692 (53)4052 (55)1310 (48)1097 (53)5233 (54)
  Microalbuminuria3646 (17)1201 (16)499 (18)340 (16)1606 (16)
  Macroalbuminuria1621 (7)473 (6)242 (9)212 (10)694 (7)
  Missing4938 (23)1617 (22)654 (24)432 (21)2235 (23)
Comorbidities
 Total no. of comorbidities Quana (22), mean±SD4±24±24±25±24±1
 Retinopathy,a,e n (%)3588 (16)1154 (16)456 (17)455 (22)1523 (16)
 Coronary artery disease and stroke,e n (%)2945 (13)1863 (25)253 (9)335 (16)494 (5)
Baseline medication use
 Insulin, n (%)5010 (23)1626 (22)543 (20)705 (34)2136 (22)
 Metformin, n (%)11,945 (55)3907 (53)1311 (48)934 (45)5793 (59)
 Statin, n (%)15,903 (73)5454 (74)1914 (71)1416 (68)7119 (73)
 ARB, n (%)5902 (27)2021 (28)947 (35)576 (28)2348 (24)
 No. of medications,a mean±SD11±511±510±514±610±4.4
Utilization within the  prior 12 mo, mean±SD
 Outpatient encounters11.4±11.512.7±12.511.0±11.115.7±14.19.6±9.8
 Inpatient encountersa0.2±0.70.4±0.80.2±0.70.5±1.00.1±0.4
 Emergency department encountersa0.6±1.40.8±1.60.6±1.31.1±2.00.4±1.0
Socioeconomic statusf
 Poverty0.1 (0.1)0.1 (0.1)0.1 (0.1)0.1 (0.1)0.1 (0.1)
  No. (%) missing154 (0.7)55 (0.7)19 (0.7)13 (0.6)67 (0.7)
 Educationa0.4 (0.2)0.4 (0.2)0.4 (0.2)0.4 (0.2)0.4 (0.2)
  No. (%) missing154 (0.7)55 (0.7)19 (0.7)13 (0.6)67 (0.7)
  • ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker.

  • a Variables with absolute standardized differences after propensity score weighting of ≥0.1.

  • b Most recent within the past 6 months.

  • c Most recent within the past 12 months.

  • d Albuminuria was calculated from spot albumin-to-creatinine ratios (normal: 0–29 mg/g; microalbuminuria: 30–299 mg/g; macroalbuminuria: ≥300 mg/g), spot protein-to-creatinine ratios (normal: 0–149 mg/g; microalbuminuria: 150–499 mg/g; macroalbuminuria: ≥500mg/g), and urine protein dipsticks (normal: negative, trace; microalbuminuria: 1+; macroalbuminuria: 2+ and above) (44).

  • e Retinopathy was defined as two outpatient encounters or one inpatient encounter in the 365 days before the index date with the following ICD-9 codes (250.5X or 362.0X). Coronary artery disease and stroke were defined by any of the following codes in the 365 days before the index date (ICD-9: 410–414, 429.2, or 429.7 for coronary artery disease and 430.X, 431.X, 433.X1, or 434.X1 for stroke) or primary discharge diagnosis for acute myocardial infarction or stroke (Supplemental Table 1) in the 365 days before the index date.

  • f Socioeconomic status was defined at the census track level. Poverty reflects the proportion of households with below poverty-level income in the census track, and education reflects the proportion of households with a high school degree or less in the census track.